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| LIBRARY OF CONGRESS. I 



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| UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



AN 

EASY GUIDE 

7 : THE 

GERMAN LANGUAGE 

A NEW COURSE OF INSTRUCTION. 



GEE M A X 



A SHORT TIME. 



J. .<?. EEISEXDER. Ph. Doc. 



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LONDON ; 
DCLAU AND CO.. SOHO SQUARE. 



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PREFACE. 



This little work is neither a grammar, a dictionary, 
a series of selections, a vocabulary, nor a volume of 
dialogues and conversations, In taking it up, the 
reader must not expect it to introduce him to all the 
detail to be met with in Adelung, Noehden, or Grimm. 
Its object and aim are to ease the labour and econo- 
mise the time of those beginning to learn German. 
The first three chapters contain sound theoretical and 
practical instruction, calculated to give the young 
student clear and correct ideas of pronunciation, de- 
clension, conjugation, literal, interlinear, and free 
translation, syntax and construction. 

These, together with the two chapters of Familiar, 
Idiomatical, and Mercantile Phraseology, at the end 
of the book, will enable him, with a very moderate 
share of the assistance of a competent master, to read, 
write, and speak German in a short time, when he 
will be prepared for the attainment of any degree of 
perfection at which he may feel desirous of aiming 
in the language and literature of Germany. 

The Author. 



London. May, 1844. 



ERRATUM. 



Page 92, eight lines from bottom, for " German propositions" read 
"German prepositions" 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 



In pronunciation and provincial peculiarities of every 
description, Germany has as many Yorkshires and 
Lancashires, &c, as any nation in Europe. This 
fact will enable the intelligent reader to account for 
the discrepancies published in German grammars on 
the sounds and powers of different elements in the 
German alphabet. In the pronunciation of these, 
however, natives of England cannot do better than 
follow the directions given in this work, disregarding 
in toto the verbiage of those who say that b, at the 
end of German words takes the hard sound of t, and 
thus teach their pupils to transform Sob into Xot, 
Jtmb into Mint, tmb into unt, SJiunb into SKunt, SSJJonb 
into gjfont, ©lieb into ©iter, &c. &c. 

The letter b has the same sound and power in 
German as in Dutch, French, Italian, Latin, Portu- 
guese, and English words. 

In the pronunciation of the letter §, the studenr 
who may endeavour to teach himself may be guided 
by the note at the bottom of page 4. The only ad- 
dition to be made at present to the instruction con- 
tained in that note is this :- — §, followed by a consonant, 
is occasionally articulated like sh in English, ch in 
French, and sc in Italian words ; but in the second 
person of some verbs, and at the end of superlative^ 



VI 

in jie, the ft preserves the articulation it has in state, 
standard, &c. 

In German, as in English, Dutch, Danish, Swed- 
ish, Norwegian, Icelandic, and other various lan- 
guages and dialects, verbs have only four simple 
tenses, viz. two in the indicative mood, and two in 
the subjunctive mood. In all these languages, the 
future and conditional tenses are not simple, but 
compound forms, obtained by placing certain tenses 
of some auxiliary or helping verb before the infinitive 
mood of another verb. 

In German, the present tense of the indicative of 
the verb roerbett is used to form the future tense, 
while the imperfect tense of the subjunctive mood 
of the same verb is employed in the formation of the 
conditional tense. For this reason these two tenses 
only of voetben are given in this work, pages 25, 26, 
and 27, almost immediately before the introduction 
of the future and conditional tenses, pages 28 and 29. 

The potential mood, as defined by English gram- 
marians, has no existence in the northern languages 
of Europe, nor is such a mood either known among 
or acknowledged by German, Dutch, Swedish, or 
Danish grammarians. It has been allowed to appear 
in the present publication for the sake of conforming, 
in some measure, to the notions entertained on this 
point by native writers on English grammar, and in 
order to elicit such further attention to this subject as 
those whom it more particularly concerns may think 
proper to bestow upon it. 

The conditional tense, which in this work has been 
called the " Conditional Mood," is not a part of the 
subjunctive mood, as some contend, but a compound 



Vll 

form of the verb in all the northern languages of the 
Indo-Germanic family, that might, perhaps, with more 
propriety be termed the imperfect, or second form of 
the future tense. 

This must become evident to any person who will 
take the trouble to compare the two simple tenses 
of the French, Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese sub- 
junctive mood with the future and conditional tenses 
of the same languages, In each of these languages, 
the future tense is a separate and distinct form of 
the verb, produced by a change in its termination, 
and so is the conditional tense ; and the forms of these 
two tenses, in the language of each of these four 
sections of the European Continent, are very different 
from either the present or the imperfect tense of the 
subjunctive mood. 

Regular active German verbs are conjugated like 
the regular neuter verb fcfyerjen (p. 45). Thus, loben, 
to praise : — 

Indicative Mood. 
Present Tense. 
3ct) lobe/ eu fobfti er lobt ; toil lobeti/ tyi lebet/ fie loben. 

Imperfect Tense, 
3$ lobte/ bu lebteft, er lobte 3 toil lebten, tyt [obtet, fie lobten. 

Subjunctive Mood. 
Present Tense. 
3d) lobe, bu lobeft, er lobe 3 rotr loben, tyr iobei, }it (oben. 

Imp ei feet Tense, 

3* (obete/ bu lebeteft, er (obetej mix lobeten, tbr lofretet, fie 
iobeten. 



Vlll 



Future Tense. 
3cf) roerbe loben, bu rairft loben, er nrirb loben ; wtu rcerben 
loben/ ttjr roerbet loben/ fte roerben loben. 

Conditional Tense. 
3rf) tturbe loben/ bu rcurbeft loben/ cu nmrben loben 5 wir ixmrben 
loben/ tyr routbet loben/ fte rcurben loben. 

Pres. Part. — lobenb. Past Part. — gelobt. 

German passive verbs are formed by means of the 
simple tenses of the verb Herbert, and the past parti- 
ciple of the active verb. Thus, id) werbe gelobt, I am 
praised ; id) rourbe gelobt, I was praised, and so on, 
for the other persons and tenses. 

German irregular verbs may be divided into six 
classes. The first class contains only fen, of which 
the following are the radical monosyllables: bad, 
fafyr, grab, lab, maty, fcfyaff, fcfylag, trag, roacfyS, roafd). 
With the exception of mafyl, the radical vowel a is 
changed into u in the imperfect tense of the indicative 
mood ; hence in that tense they make buf, fufer, grub, 
tub, fcfyuff, fcfylug, trug, wucfyS, roufcfy. The imperfect 
tense of the subjunctive mood is formed by changing 
the u of the imperfect of the indicative into u, and 
adding e to the final consonant, thus: bitcfe, fufyre, 
grube, tube, fdjuffe, fcfyluge, truge, rpuc^fe, wufdje. Each 
of these verbs takes the augment ge in the past 
participle, retaining the radical monosyllable and the 
termination of the infinitive mood : as, ge^bac?-en, 
ge^fafyr^en, ge-grab-en, ge^lab-en, ge^maf)Uen, ge-fd)afj^ 
en, ge^fd)lag-en, ge-trag^en, ge-wad)^en, ge-wafcr^eiu 
These verbs also contain the radical monosyllable 
in the imperative mood, to which e is added to form 
the second person singular, as given in the list. The 



IX 



irregularity of the present tense of the indicative, 
consists in changing the radical vowel a into a in 
the second and third persons singular. The present 
tense of the subjunctive mood of irregular verbs is 
always regular, 

The second class contains fourteen verbs, of which 
the following are the radical monosyllables : — bld§, 
brat, faf>, fait, i)ang, lag, rati), falj, fcplaf, fpalt, i)au, 
lauf/ ruf, ftof, fang, ^alt* The imperfect tense of 
the indicative mood of these verbs is formed by 
changing the radical vowel a into ie and i : fyang and 
fang are the only themes in this list which change 
a into t in the imperfect tense. Hence they make 
blte§, brief, (fat) has no imperfect tense) ft el, i)tng, 
Hep, rtetl), ftyltef, l)ieb, lief, rief, ftte£, ftng, f)ielt. 
@aljen and fpatten are irregular throughout, except in 
the past participle. Sjauzn is regular in the present 
tense of the indicative mood. The radical mono- 
syllable is retained in the past participle of each 
of this class of irregulars, and preceded by the aug- 
ment ge, as in the first class, thus : — ge-blaf-en, ges 
brazen, ge-fa^en, ge-falUen, ge^ang-en, ge^laff^en, 
ge^rat^en, gesfalj-en, gesfdjlafcen, ge^fpalteen, ge^f)au- 
en, ge4auf-en, ge^tufcen, ge-ftoj^en, ge-fang~en, ge- 
fyalt^en. Like the first class, these verbs also retain 
the radical monosyllable in the imperative mood, and 
add e to it ; they likewise form their second and third 
persons singular of the present tense of the indicative 
mood by changing the radical vowel a or o into a or 
6, as in the first list. 

The third class contains thirteen verbs, of which 
the following are the radical monosyllables : — 1% frep, 
geb, *ne8, ^fd)el), leg, me£, fety, tret, sgeg, bitt, lieg, fife 



The imperfect tense of these verbs is formed by 
changing the radical vowels e and i into a : as, a$, 
frag, gab, ge^na§, ge^fcfyafy, la§, maf, faf), trat, ser^gafj, 
bat, lag, fap. These verbs retain the radical e in the 
past participle, and take the augment ge: thus, ge- 
geffcen, gc^freff-en, ge^geb-en, ge-nefcen, ge^e^en, 
ge-lefcen, ge^mefj^en, ge-fe^en, ge^tret^en, tter^geff-en, 
ge^bet^en, ge^leg^en. ©e-nefcen, bitten, lieg^en, and 
]t^en, are regular in the present tense of the indica- 
tive mood. They are also regular in the imperative 
mood, and, therefore, make genefe, bitte, liege, and 
ft^e, in the second person singular. 

The fourth class contains thirty-nine verbs. The radi- 
cal concretive of these is ei, which is changed into t in 
the imperfect tense and in the past participle. Each 
of these verbs is regular in the present tense of the 
indicative and in the imperative mood. Their radical 
monosyllables are : — fieif , betf , bletcf), gtetd), gleit, gretf, 
reif, fnetf, fneip, letb, pfeif, retj*, reft, fcfyletd), fcfyleif, 
fcfyleijj, fcfymei^, fdmeib, fdjreit, ftteicfy, jlreit, miti), bletb, 
-betf), lety, meib, preiS, reib, fd)eib, fcfyem, fcfytetb, ferret, 
fc^roeig, fpei, jleig, treib, n>ei§, jety, l)ei£L 

With the exception of be^fietf^en, all the verbs of this 
class take the augment ge in the past participle : as, ge^ 
biffcen, &c. 

The fifth class contains forty-nine verbs, each of 
which changes its radical vowel, or concretive, into o 
in the imperfect tense and in the past participle. 
Their radical monosyllables are:— Meg, Met, flieg, 
fliel), flieg, frier, *nie£, fried), ftyfeb, fd)ie£, fd)lie£, 
fcfcnieb, fieb, fipriefj, jiieb, trief, trug, ^btie£, 4ier, uneg, 
jtef), fauf, fcfynaub, fcfyraub, glimm, flimm, flemm, *roeg, 
fed?t, flecfyt, ^eb, meif, pfleg, quell, fdjer, fcfymelj, fc&well, 



XI 



mb, gd^r, fdbwar, »dg, [ijwbx, lofd), fcfyatt. With the 
exception of those compounded with be and set, the 
past participle of these verbs takes the augment ge : 
as, ge-boteen, ge^flob-en, &c. 

The sixth class contains forty-two verbs, fourteen 
of which change their radical vowel i into it, while 
the rest change their radical e into o, in the past 
participle, and all have a in the imperfect tense of 
the indicative, and d in the imperfect of the subjunc- 
tive mood. Their radical monosyllables are : — binb, 
bring, ftnb, 4tng, fling, ring, filing, fcfynnnb, ftng, finf, 
fprtng, trinf, rrunb, jrctng, -ginn, -roinn, rinn, fdutnmm, 
firm, sfeljt, berg, berft, brefd), ^bdr, gelt, bred), belf, nefym, 
fcfyeit, feared, fpred), fied), jlecf, ftebt, jlerb, trejf, =berb, 
rcerb, rcerb, rcerf* 

With the exception of be-ginn^en, be-fefyUen, emp^ 
fef)Uen, and fler^berb^en, each of these verbs takes the 
augment ge in the past participle, as ge-bunb-en, ge- 
brofd)-en, &c. 

For a more detailed account of German verbs, the 
student is referred to the fifth and sixth chapters of 
the first part of " Every Englishman his own German 
Master." In the former, the irregular verbs are 
conjugated at full length ; and in the latter there is a 
complete development of the nature and formation of 
German verbs and substantives. 

German construction, the theory of which the 
student will find in the third chapter of this book, is 
not natural but scientific ; it is a servile imitation of 
the Latin construction, introduced at first in the sus- 
tained style of the bar, and of public business, whence 
it passed into the ordinary language of the people, and 
into common life. 



Xll 



In using this part of the work, each rule and exam- 
ple should be committed to memory, and reference be 
made to such portions of the practical application of 
the theory as bear immediately upon the rule. More- 
over, each example ought to be considered as a model 
sentence, by which the student is to construct, write, 
and speak other sentences. 

The Familiar, Idiomatical, and Mercantile Phrase- 
logy in the two last chapters, should be studied in the 
same manner. 

By a strict adherence to the directions given for 
using this book, the student will make more solid pro- 
gress in a few weeks than he would be able to make 
in as many months, by pursuing a different course in 
his endeavours to acquire a knowledge of German. 

In conclusion, the student should not omit learning 
to write the German character. 



TME GERMAN AiyPHABET. 

CAPITAL LETTERS. 

c 



//.. % J, -I 



dz 



x 



B C 



Mm 4. 3 1 discern 





J K 



f 



L M 



'/__ //, 



U 



P / Q R S 



W^PCh. -2. 



W X 



n ; 
3. 



/ 
1 






SMALL LETTERS 



c d. 



\\ . 




4? 



/VW, AV, /V, \ , sty, K\ 



TLT XL O 



O , 

s 



t 



//, 



^ 

v 






UMLAUTE OR MODIFIED VOWELS 



V 17 

\ 



r , vt -11 , 



Oe 



Ue 



1 



^ 2 . «C 



DOUBLE CONSONANTS. 

1 / , KA 



ff 



ss 



/ 



.sr 



/ 



THE ALPHABET Effl&MPUFIMX 

THE LORDS PRAYER 
FROM LUTHER'S TRANSLATION OF THE BIBLE 



a>, 



OH*^Pty _Si Ti 1'PtsH/' ^t^O^t^t^t/tt^ ^Py^iy^U^t^^l^tplfT. 




h/11^ 1 1& I 1i I * J I '■ ' 



^ti^^t^py^u^ /Pispt 6 \ 17^-pp^ 
<^Pu^^pi^ ^p^/p^pp^^p^i//- /Pyn v 




5 
yp^H^r-pp^ 




c->^ c 1^11/ 1 111 1 l/^lw 








^p-pi/ y^t^^fy&ispj^ 



EASY GUIDE 

TO THE 

GERMAN LANGUAGE. 





THE 


ALPHABET 






Characters. 


Sounds. P( 


)wers. 


Characters. 


Sounds 


Powers 


21 a 


ah 


a 


& 


o J 






t a i 
3Ce a J 






Dc 


oeu, (jeu, vceu 


) oe 


a 


ae 


$ 


P 


"pa 


P 


25 b 


ba 


b 




tf 


pa ef 


Pf 


6 c 


tsa 


c 




^ 


pa hah 


ph 


* 


tsa hah 


ch 


£l 


q 


coo 


q 


cf 


tsa hah 


ck 


m 


r 


err 


r 


£> b 


da 


d 


Q 


f« 


ess 


s 


e e 


eh 


e 


©d) fcb 


ess tsa hah 


sell 


S f 


ef 


f 




fff 


ess ess 


ss 


ff 


efef 


ff 




ft 


ess ta 


St 


© 8 


gha 


g 


S 


t 


ta 


t 


£ I) 


hah 


h 


3$ 


ft 


ta hah 


th 


3 i 


e 


i 


£5 


6 


ta tset 


tz 


3 i 


yott 


J 


U 


u 


00 


u 


it i 


hah 


k 


Ue 


u 


u (rue, vue) 


ue 


8 I 


ell 


1 


S3 





f ho it- 


V 


a 


ell ell 


11 


SB 


w 


va 


w 


3R m 


em 


m 


3E 


* 


eehs 


X 


91 n 


en 


n 


9 


9 


eepselon 


y 


.0 


oh 





3 


5 


tset 


z 



CHAPTER I. 

PRONUNCIATION, DECLENSION, CONJUGA- 
TION OF THE SIMPLE TENSES OF VERBS, 
EXERCISES IN LITERAL, INTERLINEAR, 
AND FREE TRANSLATION, &c. &c. 

The simple vowels, a, it i f r;, o, \x, are pronounced as 
follows : — 

%, when long, like a m the English word bar, in the 
French word has, and in the Italian verb dare. As exam- 
ples the student may take, libenb, evening ; SSatet"/ father ; 
2i bel, nobility. 

In each of the above German words, the a has a long 
quantity.* When this German vowel is short, it is pro- 
nounced like a in the English words glass, pass, grass, &c. 
As examples the student may take, bacBen, to bake ; mad)en/ 
to make, &c. 

The German C/ when long, is sounded like the English a 
in fate, hate, late, &c. ; and like the English e in the words 
met, pet, yet, &c, when its quantity is short. 

It is, moreover, to be observed, that this e is never mute 
or silent in German, except when immediately preceded in 
the same syllable by the vowel i, in which situation e loses 
its own sound, and lengthens that of i, which is then equi- 
valent to the English double e, in the words meet, street, 
fleet, &e. 

I have now said sufficient respecting the sounds and 
powers of the German vowels a, e and i, to justify me in 
introducing the student to the definite article, which is de- 
clined thus : — 

* As a general rule for the pronunciation of the vowels and diph- 
thongs in the German language, it may be observed that they have 
a long quantity when followed by one consonant only, and a short 
quantity when followed by two or more consonants. 



Masc. 


Fern. 


JYeftf. 


P/z*r. for all genders, 


N. bet 


bie 


ba§ 


bit, the 


G. beg 


bee 


bes 


ber^ of the 


D. bem 


tec 


bem 


bem to the 


A. ten 


bio 


cas 


bie# the. 



This is the most perfect specimen of declension in the 
German language, and that according to which ail German 
adjectives, present and past participles, as well as all relative, 
possessive, demonstrative, and indefinite pronouns are de- 
clined. 

The definite article owes its origin to the three personal 
pronouns, zt, he ; \ie, she ; €6/ it. The terminations — 



Masc, 


Fern. 


Xeut. 


Plur 


. for all genders, 


X. er 


e 


e£ 




e 


G. ee 


er 


e$ 




er 


D. em 


er 


em 




en 


A. en 


e 


eg 




tt 



affixed to any one of the above-mentioned parts of speech, 
will give its declension in the different cases and numbers. 
This view not only explains the theory of German declen- 
sion, but is, in fact, the substance of all the declension that 
has any real existence in the German language, with the 
sole exception of that which is peculiar to the personal pro- 
nouns, to be given hereafter. 

©ut/ good ; wetfJi white ; Itebenb/ loving ; ap\etyct$ learned ; 
gebtlber, educated ; tretdfv* who, which; mein, my ; betiij thy ; 
fetti/ his ; bteS/ this ; jen, that; job/ each, every ; Eein, no one, 
none, and fold)/ such, are adjectives, present and past parti- 
ciples, relative, possessive, demonstrative and indefinite pro- 
nouns, which the student will be able to decline at once, bv 

* In the German language, d) and Q f initial, medial and final, have 
peculiarities of sound which can only be acquired by imitating the 
pronunciation of a competent master. Those, however, who are 
acquainted with the gutteral aspirate sounds of the Romaic, Turkish, 
Hebrew, Arabic. Persian, Coptic, Sanscrit, Spanish, Welch, Irish, or 
even with the sound of chin the word Lochlomond. will experience no 
difficulty in acquiring the pronunciation of the German characters. 



affixing to them the above terminations, as given in the 
different cases. The adjective, therefore, he will decline 
thus : — 





Masc. 


Fern. 


Neut. 


Plur. 


for 


all genders. 


N. 


gutter 


e 


eg 






e 


G. 


e£ 


er 


eg 






er 


D. 


em 


er 


em 






en 


A. 


en 


e 


eg 






e. 



This example will show the student that the nominative 
and accusative cases singular, feminine and plural of all 
genders are the same ; that the genitive and dative cases 
singular feminine are alike ; that the genitive plural of the 
three genders is the same as the nominative singular mas- 
culine, and that the accusative singular masculine and the 
dative plural of the three genders have the same termina- 
tion. 

I shall give another example in illustration and exempli- 
fication of what I have just advanced, and then leave it for 
the student to affix the terminations to the other words him- 
self, which he will be able to do correctly without any 
difficulty whatever. 





Masc. 


Fern. 


Neut. 


Plur. for 


all genders. 


N. 


reetcfcer 


e 


eg 




e 


G. 


eg 


er 


eg 




er 


D. 


em 


er 


em 




en 


A. 


en 


e 


eg 




e. 



Before returning to the analysis of the vowels, it may 
not be amiss to teach the student how to conjugate the 
German verbs fetn,* to be, and fyaben, to have. 



* In German , the consonant f, where it is not accompanied by 
another consonant, is invariably pronounced by good readers and 
speakers like the English s in rose, repose, &c. Before p and t, 
at the beginning of a word, it is pronounced like s in the same situa- 
tion in English words. Double f/ medial and final, is pronounced 
like st, in the word listen. The German et is pronounced like the 
English i in wine, vine, &c. 



Indicative Mood. 
Present Tense. 
3d) ton/ 1 am ; bu tuft/ thou art ; cr, fte/ eS tji, he, she, it is ; voiz 
ftnb/ we are; tfyr fetb/ you are ; fie ftnb/ they are. 3$ bin nid;t, I 
am not ; bu toft nid)t, thou art not ; er tft ntd)t, he is not ; wiv ftnb 
mcl)t, we are not ; it)r fetb nid)t, you are not ; fie ftnb nid)i# they 
are not. Sin id] ? Am I ? Stft b\x ? Art thou ? 3 ft er ? Is 
he? (Sinb wit ? Are we ? ; 2etb itjr ? Are you ? ©inb fte ? Are 
they? — Sin id) ntd)t ? Am I not? SBtft bu nidjt ? Art thou 
not ? 3fr er ntdt ? Is he not ? (gtnb rotr nid)t ? Are we not ? 
Seib tt)r nid)t ? Are you not ? Stub fte mdji ? Are they not ? 

Imperfect Tense. 
3d) war/ I was ; bu roar ft/ thou wast ; er wav f he was ; rotr 
roaren, we were ; tfyt waret, you were ; fte roareit/ they were. 
3d) roar ntd)t, 1 was not ; bu roarji ntd)t thou wast not ; er roar 
nid)t f he was not ; ttor roaren md)t, we were not ; tfyr roarer 
nid)i, you were not ; fte roaren nidit/ they were not. 2Bar tdi ? 
Was I ? <Barft bu ? Wast thou ? 2Bar er ? W^as he ? SBaren 
rotr ? W r ere we ? SSavet tt>r ? Were you ? SBaren fte ? Were 
they ? — 2Bar id) ntd)t ? Was I not ? 3Sar(! bu ntcfet ? Wast 
thou not? £Kkr er rud)t? Was he not? SSaren rotr nid)t ? 
Were we not ? SSaret tyr ntd t ? Were you not ? ££aren fte 
mdjt ? Were they not ? 

Subjunctive Mood. 

Present Tense* 

34 fet/ I may be ; bu fetff, thou mayst be ; er fet/ he may 
be ; ttrir feieri/ we may be ; il}r fetet/ you may be ; fte feien/ they 
may be. 3d) fet tnd't/ I may not be ; bu feijt ntdjt/ thou 
mayst not be ; er fet md)t, he may not be ; ttnr feien nid)t/ we 
may not be ; tfyr fetet nid)w you may not be ; fte feien nityx, 
they may not be. 

The other forms of this tense, when used, are obtained 
by placing the pronouns after the verb, as in the foregoing 
examples. 

b3 



Imperfect Tense. 

3d) mare,* I might be ; bu tvdreft, thou mightest be ; er 
ware/ he might be ; xoxt rr-drert/ we might be ; tyt tr-dret, you 
might be ; fie waun, they might be. 3d) rpare ntd)t, I might 
not be ; bu rodreft md)t, thou mightest not be ; er ware nidjt, 
he might not be ; trtr rodren nid)r, we might not be ; tyr rcdret 
nid)t, you might not be ; fte wdren nid)t, they might not be, 
SBdrc id)? Might I be? SSdteft bu? Mightest thou be ? 
2£dre er ? Might he be ? £Baren nur ? Might we be ? 2£drct 
it)v ? Might you be ? SSdren fte ? Might they be ? — ££are 
id) nid)t ? Might I not be ? 2£drejt bu nidftt ? Mightest thou 
not be ? 2£dre er nidjt ? Might he not be? aBdren trir md)t ? 
Might we not be ? 2£dret tyt md)t ? Might you not be ? 
fS&cen fte ntdbt ? Might they not be? 

(Seienb, being; a,err>efen/ been. 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 
3d) t)abe,t I have ; bu fyaji/ thou hast ; er fyaf/ he has; u;tr 
rjaben, we have; tyt t)abet, you have; fte ^aben, they have, 
3d) tjabe nid)t, I have not ; bu t)afr nid)r, thou hast not ; er t)a£ 
nid)t, he has not ; xoxx fyaben nidjt, we have not ; ityv f)abet 
nid>t, you have not ; fte fyaben nid)t, they have not. $abe id) ? 
Have I ? #aft bu ? Hast thou ? *g>at er ? Has he ? Spaben 
xviv ? Have we ? £abet ibv ? Have you? 4paben fte? Have 



* The German \v has the same sound and power as the English v, 
in the words vine, vote, &c. ; and the German t) is pronounced like 
the English /in father, feather, fifty, &c, while two dots over a> 0/ 
U/ in German words, convert these vowels into a, 6/ U, the first of 
which is pronounced like the English a, in fate, &c, with a long or 
short quantity, according to the general rule already given. The 
second, like eu, in the Erench words feu, peu, &c. and the last, like 
the French w, in the words vertu, bossu, &c. 

f The German t) has three different powers. At the begining of 
words it is aspirated rather more than in the English words house, 
home, horse, &c. ; in the middle, and at the end of words, it serves 
merely to lengthen the vowel which precedes it, whilst in compound 
words it retains its aspiration. 



they ?— v£abe id) ntcfyt ? Have I not? £aft bit ntd)t ? Hast 
thou not ? $ctt er ntd)t ? Has he not ? Jpctbert wit ntd)t ? Have 
we not ? £abet i(;r ntd)t ? Have you not ? apaben fie md)t ? 
Have they not? 

Imperfect Tense. 

3d) fyatte/ I had ; bu tyatteji) thou hadst ; er fyatte, he had ' 
ttnr fatten/ we had ; tt)r t)attet f you had ; fte fatten, they had. 
3d) fyatte nid)t/ I had not ; bu ^attefc ntd)t/ thou hadst not ; er 
fjatte ntd)t, he had not ; tr-tr fatten ntd)t/ we had not ; tfyr fatter 
md)t, you had not ; fte fatten nidjf, they had not. |>atte tcb ? 
Had I ? £attefr bu ? Hadst thou ? £atte er ? Had he ? %aU 
ten ttnr ? Had we ? #attet ifyc ? Had you ? .patten fte ? 
Had they ? — apatte id) nidjt ? Had I not? £atteft bu md)t ? 
Hadst thou not ? $cttte er nid)t ? Had he not ? fatten voit 
ntcrt ? Had we not ? $attet t£r nid)t ? Had you not ? .patten 
fte ntcfet ? Had they not ? 

Subjunctive Mood. 

Present Tense* 

3d) fyabt, I may have ; bu fyabejr, thou maysthave ; cr ^abtt 
he may have ; irtr fcaben/ we may have ; if)r fyabet/ you mav 
have ; fte fyaben, they may have. 3d) fyabe md)t, I may not 
have ; bu fyabeft nicbt/ thou mayst not have ; er fyabz nid)t, he 
may not have ; ttur i)abm nui-t, we may not have ; tfjr fyabet 
ntd)t/ you may not have ; fte fyaben nid)t# they may not have. 

Imperfect Tense. 

3d) §atte/ I might have ; bu tjattefr, thou mightest have ; 
er §&tte/ he might have ; ttrir fatten, we might have ; ibr 
t)dttef/ you might have ; fte fatten/ they might have. 3d) 
t)dtre md)t, &c. ; ^dtte id) ? &c. ; %attz id) nid)t ? &c, all to be 
written out at full length, and committed to memory. 



Conversational Exercise, 

Illustrative of the Use and Construction of German Personal, Posses- 
sive } Demonstrative, Interrogative, and Indefinite Pronouris, &c. 

3d) bin ntdfjt ta gewefen. 
/ am not there been* 
I have not been there. 

S3in id) nidjt ba geroefen ? 
^m / wo/" £#ere 6 <?<??? ? 
Have I not been there ? 

3d) fyabe intt tfom ntdbt gefprod)en 9 
/ Aa^e with him not spoken. 
1 have not spoken to him. 

$abm jte tt)n gefetjen ? 
Have they him seen ? 
Have they seen him ? 

3d) f)abe tfyn beute ntcfyt gefefyen. 
J /mve A/m to-day not seen. 
I have not seen him to-day. 

(§r. t)at met)r alg gwanjtg* $)ferbe. 
He has more than twenty horses. 

©ic fyaben nfdjt mefyr a!S funfgefyn ^ferbe. 
They have not more than fifteen horses. 

SBStr baben Mm spferbe mefyr. 
We have no horses more. 
We have no more horses. 

(Ste l)at Me erfyabenfte, anftanbtgfie unb fceufceibenjie $aU 
She has the most dig nified^most decent, andmost modest car- 

tung/ mld)e ein grauenjtmmer fyaben fann. 

r/a#e which a woman have can. 

She has the most dig-nitied, decent, and modest carriage 

that a woman can have.f 

* In German, % is pronounced like ts at the end of English words, 
as in rights, flights, &c. 

t The general rule for the formation of the comparative and su- 
perlative degrees of German adjectives is this :— The comparative is 



9 



©eben <£te eg ratr. 
Give you it to me. 
Give it to rce. 

<gte fyaben eg mir nidjt gegeben. 

You have it to me not given. 
You have not given it to me. 

@etne (Scfcroefier tft junger cti§ er. 
His sister is younger than he. 

<&& tjl gegen t§n etngenommen. 
She is against him prejudiced. 
She is prejudiced against him. 

Sinb ©ie gegen micf) etngenommen ? 
Are you against me prejudiced ? 
Are you prejudiced against me ? 

SBtr t)aben fd)on trei SBriefe Don tfym er^atten. 
^Fe have already three letters from him received. 
We have already received three letters from him. 

Sftetne S3afe tft frutjer ba angefommen alg er. 
ilfz/ cousin is earlier there arrived than he. 
My cousin arrived there earlier than he did. 

£aben (§te tbm metnen SSrtef ubergeben ? 
Have you to him my letter overgiven ? 
Have you delivered my letter to him ? 

S£o tft er ? 3* fr*be if)n md)t gefer>en. 
Vihere is he ? I have him not seen. 
Where is he ? I have not seen him. 

93?etne ©dwefter tft jefct mit tfym fefyr gtifrtefcen. 
il/y sisfer £s wow m?z£/& 7z/?/z «?er^ happy. 
My sister is very happy with him now. 



formed by adding x f or er/ to the adjective in its positive state, and 
changing the vowels at 0/ and U/ into d 6/ it 5 and the superlative 
degree is formed by adding ft/ or eft/ to the comparative. It is, more- 
over, to be observed, that when the definite article precedes the ad- 
jective, as in the above sentence, an e is added to the saicl termina- 
tions, in the nominative case singular and plural of all genders ; zx\, 
in the genitive and dative cases singular and plural, and e in the accu- 
sative plural. 



10 



£a tfl er. 

There is he. 
There he is. 

©a gefyr er oorbet/ feben ^ie it)n ntcbt ? 
There goes he past {by), see you him not? 
There he is going by, do you not see him ? 

©efyen ete ifyn ? 5ft er es? (5r tft eg ntcfet. 

#ee you him ? Is he it ? He is it not. 

Do you see him ? Is it he ? It is not he. 

(Seine Gutter furfrt tftr. auf. 
i7fs mother seeks him up. 
His mother is seeking him. 

.pat fie Sfynen *>on ifym gefagt ? 
Has she to you of him said ? 
Has she spoken to you about him ? 

Qx bat eg mtr gefagt. 1 He told it to me. 
He has it to me said. J He told me so. 

©te bjaben ftd) rerrecbner. 

jTow 7?<zre yourself mis-reckoned. 

You have made a mistake in your reckoning. 

3cun bin id) bereft ab$uget)en. 
iVow a??z / ready away to go. 
Now I am ready to go. 

(Sr tft ramgjhfif §et)n Sato alter al§ fetn better. 

He is at least ten years older than his cousin. 

$aben ©ie tbnen ton mtr Qtfatf ? 
//"at? 6? ^om fo them of me said ? 
Have you spoken to them about me ? 

©te t)at eg bunt tfcn §u imffen befommen. 
She has it through him to know got. 
She has got to know it through him. 

3d) bin fceure bd ifom geirefen. 
/ am to-day by him been. 
I have been at his house to-dav. 



11 

SBSir fyabtn ibr baoon abgeratfcen. 

JFe 7z£zz;e /?er therefrom dissuaded* 

We have dissuaded her from it. 

£abcn fie fid) oerrecfynet ? 

Have they themselves mis-reclconed ? 

Have they made a mistake in their reckoning ? 

£aben Sie fid- man oerredmet? 

Have you yourself not mis-reclconed? 

Have you not made a mistake in your account ? 

£aben fie S^nen bason Qefagt ? 

Have they to you therefrom said ? 

Have they spoken to you about it ? 

<gr {ft je^r bet ifynen. 

He is yet {now) by them* 

He is now with them (at their house). 

©te feibji tabert e§ mir gefagt. 

772ez/ themselves have it to me said. 
They told me so themselves. 

SOfteine £Bafe bat i^ren Sfftng unb tbren gddier settoren. 
Mz/ cousin has her ring and her fan lost. 
My cousin has lost her ring and her fan. 

$abtn Ste ue tl)m gurutfgegeben ? 
Have you them to him hack given ? 
Have you returned them to him ? 

<Sie t)abcn t§r £au3, ityce SE3tefe# unb tfyre ^3ferbe 
77ze?/ Aare their house, their meadow, and their horses 

Derfauft. 

sold. 

They have sold their house, their meadow, and their 

horses. 

<Ste fjat tfyre ^tfule aufgege&en. 
iSTze has her school up-given. 
She has given up her school. 

By the foregoing examples, the student will perceive that 
the verb, in interrogative sentences, precedes its subject or 



12 

nominative case, and that the attributive is put in the third 
place ; that adjectives and posessive pronouns precede in 
German, as in English, the substantive which they qualify, 
whilst other determining words precede the adjective in like 
manner : that, with verbs in the infinitive mood, the deter- 
mining particles, &c. precede ; but, with finite verbs, they 
follow them; and that when there is a past participle, it is 
placed at the end of the sentence. 

It is a general rule of German construction, that all the 
cases governed by the verb are put after it, in the simple 
tenses, and between the auxiliary and the participle in the 
compound tenses. 

When a dative and an accusative case follow the verb, 
the dative usually precedes the accusative, although good 
writers and speakers are, in general, guided by the degree 
of energy they wish to give to a word, placing it at the end 
of the sentence that it may be the better observed. 

When one of the two cases is a personal pronoun, it is 
usually placed immediately after the verb ; and when both 
the cases are personal pronouns, the accusative generally 
precedes the dative case, except for the sake of emphasis or 
greater energy, as before observed. 

The principal case of the verb is followed by the prepo- 
sition and the substantives it governs. 

The circumstances of time and place precede the principal 
case of the verb, except when the case of the verb is a 
personal pronoun ; and then the latter is placed immediately 
after it. 

The German i, as we have seen, is pronounced like double 
€ in English, and V) has the same sound. 

The vowel o, when long, answers to the English, French 
Italian, Spanish, and Dutch o, in the words robe, zone, porno, 
hombre, and open ; but, when short, it is like o, in the words 
hot, pomme, oggi, odor, &c. 

The German u, when long, has the sound of the English 
oo, in Waterloo, as before observed ; of the French ou, in 



13 

poule, route, &c. ; of the Italian u* in pure, oscuro, &c. ; 
and of the Spanish w, in robusto, &c. 

The student may now learn the present and imperfect 
tenses of the indicative mood of the verbs rootlen, to will^ 
or be willing ; and fd)lte{krt/ to shut, conclude, &c. ; and then 
he may enter upon the study of short reading pieces in literal 
interlinear translations. 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 
3d) will, I will ; bu roillft/ thou wilt ; er rotll, he will ; wit 
Bolton* we will ; it;r rootlet, you will ; fie rootlem they will. 
3d) rotll nidjt, I will not ; bu roillji nidrt, thou wilt not ; et roill 
nid)t, he will not ; rotr molten nici>t/ we will not ; tfyr rootlet mtf)t, 
you will not ; fie rootten md)t, they will not. SSill id) ? Will I ? 
fGSttt id) md)t ? Will I not ? and so on for the other persons, 
which the student will write out at full length and commit 
to memory. 

Imperfect Tense. 

3d) rootlte, I would, was willing, &c. ; bu roolltefr, thou 
wouldst ; er rootlte, he would ; rotr roollten, we would ; tfyr roolltet, 
you would ; fie roollteri/ they would. 3$ rootlte nid)t, 1 would 
not ; rootlte id) ? Would I ? ©ottte id) md)t ? Would I not ? and 
so on for the other persons, each of which should be written 
out at full length and committed to memory, as before ob- 
served, for an oral exercise. 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 
3<3) fdjltege,* I shut, conclude, &c. ; bu fd)ltef?e]t/ thou, &c. ; 
er fdjltejjr $ rotr fd)ltefen# ifjr fdhiteger, fie fdjltejkn. 3* (d)liepe ntd)t. 

* @d) is pronounced like sh in English words. 
c 



14 

&&)lk$z id) ? Do I, &c. ©djliejj eft tu ? @d)ltef t cr ? <£d)tie£en 
mix} ©cfyltefjet U)r? (Sd)tie£en fte ? — ©djltege id) ntdjt ? Do I not, 
&c. (gdjltejs eft bn ntd.t ? ©d)lteft er ntdjt ? ^d)liefen nrir ntd&t ? 
©cMtefiet it)r nid)t ? ^d)ltej$en fte ntdbt ? 

Imperfect Tense. 

3d) f&tog; I concluded ; bu fdjlofieft/ er fd)lojj/ nrir fdjtoffen, 
ifyr fd)loffct/ fte fd)toffcn. 3d) fcfrlofj md)t, I did not conclude. 
©cfclojnd)? Didlconclude? (Scbtog id) nid)t? Did I not conclude? 
The student should write and read this tense in all its forms 
at full length, as directed before. 



THE FRENCH SCHOOL MASTER. 

(gin (gcfculmetfter in spartS trotlte beweifen, ba$ er tie 
A schoolmaster in Paris would prove that he the 

fd)5nfte §)erfcn auf tern (Srbboben fei. (gr fdjlofj 
handsomest person upon the earth be. He {concluded 

alfo : (Suropa ift ber fd)6nfte Styeil ber SBelt, granfreid) ift 
/^ws : Europe is the finest part of the world, France is 

ba§ fd)6nfre 2anb in (guropar ?>arfe ift tie fd}6nfte Btabt in 
^e finest country in Europe, Paris is the finest city in 

granfreidv tie Unioerfitat ift ba£ fcbonfte £luartiet in spartS/ mein 
France, the university is the finest quarter in Paris, my 

Simmer ift baS fcfconfie in ber Unicerjttat/ id) bin ba$ 
room is the handsomest in the university, I am the 

(&d]6nfte in meinem Simmer, ergo, bin id) ber fcfconfte 
handsomest in my room, therefore am I the handsomest 

SDtenfd) in ber SEelt. 
man in the world. 

THE CYNOSURES. 

£er £%l, an beffen guj? id) mid) befanb/ trar ber ^u^ei 
T7*e hill at whose foot I myself found, was the hill 



15 

ber J£aftell§ won Sparta/ roeil ber ^djauplag fid) 

of the castle {citadel) of Sparta, because the theatre itself 

an ba$ Rafted anlefjnte $ ta§ Ueberbteibfel/ raelcfceS id) faty' 
at the citadel leaned against ; the ruin which I saw> 

irar ber Sempel ber SDltneroa 6tyol£i5fo§* raeil btefer in 
was the temple of the Minerva Chalcicecos, because this in 

bem vKajtett war ; tie Srummer unb tie langc Matter/ bte ten 
the citadel was; the ruins and the long wall which I 

wetter unten gemafyr wurbe/ gefyorten gu bem (Stamme ber 
further down perceived, belonged to the tribe of the 

Jtpnofuren, treil btefer (gtamm tm* nSrbMen Sfyetie ber 
Cynosures, because this tribe in the northern part of the 

©fabt war. 3^3 fyatre at[o Sparta ror mtr. 
city was. I had therefore Sparta before me* 

Free Translation. 

The hill, at the foot of which I found myself, was the 
hill of the citadel of Sparta, since the theatre was built 
against the citadel. The ruin which I saw w T as the temple 
of Minerva Chalciaecos, because this was in the citadel: 
the ruins, and the long wall which I perceived lower down, 
formed a part of the tribe of the Cynosures, since this tribe 
inhabited the northern part of the city. Sparta, therefore, 
was before me. 

The student may now learn the simple tenses of the verb 
werben/ to become, to be, &c, preparatory to his proceeding 
to the formation of the future and conditional tenses of all 
German verbs : — 



* Contraction makes one syllable of the definite article and a pre- 
position .^as, am/ ans, oor$/ hoxm, aufS/ burets furs, tm, ing# com/ 
uberm, fibers, unterm, mtberS, $um, and gur— for: an bem/ an 
ba§, ttor ba$, oor bem, auf t>a$ f buret) ba$, fur baS/ in bem/ in bag/ 
sen bem/ uber t>em f uber ba$ f unter bem/ wtber ba$, gu bem/ and gu 
ber. 



16 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 

3d) roerbe/ I become ; bu nrirfr, thou becomest ; er xvixbt he 
becomes; nrir toerben, we become; xt?r roerbet, you become; 
fie rcerberi/ they become. 3d) roerbe md)t, I do not become. 
SBerbe id) ? Do I become ? — SBerbe td) rridbt ? Do I not become ? 

The student should write out each form of this tense at 
full length, as he was directed to do in learning the pre- 
ceding verbs, and then commit them faithfully to memory. 

Imperfect Tense. 
3* nmrbe, I became ; bu ttmrbeft/ er ttnirbe/ rott rourben, it)r 
nmrbet, fie ttmrberr. 3d) rcurbe nicfyt. £Sutbe td)? SSurbe i% 
md)t ? To be dealt with by the student as before directed. 

Subjunctive Mood. 

Present Tense. 

3d) rcerbe/ bu roerbeft, er roerbe, ttrir roerben, tt)r roerbet, fie 
srerben, I may, thou mayst, &c, become. 

Imperfect Tense. 
3d) rrmvbe, bu wjurbeft/ er n>ftrbe# tt>k rourben/ it)r trurbet, fte 
tt?urbert, I might, &c, become. All to be written out, in 
each of the four forms, at full length, and committed to 
memory, in the same manner as the different forms and 
tenses of the verbs given before the student entered upon 
the reading pieces. 

Now, returning to the analysis of the alphabet, et and e$ 
are pronounced by the inhabitants of the south of Germany 
et, or, as the English would pronounce ae\ or a and e closely 
connected in two syllables ; but in the north they pronounce 
these diphthongs as the English pronounce i in wine, vine, 
nine, &c. 



17 

As a general rule for the pronunciation of the diphthongs 
ax, ax) t au f tit el) and eu, it may he observed in general, that 
they have the sound of the English i in wire, mire, attire, 
&c. ; of the French ay in ayeul ; the Italian ai in aio ; the 
Spanish ai in Caiego, the name of a mountain ; the Dutch 
ai in hair (hair). 

The diphthong au is pronounced nearly like ow in cow, 
and exactly as an is sounded in the Italian words aura, 
paura, causa, &c. 

The diphthong oi, which, in German, occurs only in a 
few proper names, is pronounced like oi in the English word 
boil. The French have no such sound in their language. 
The Italians have it in Zoilo, and the Spaniards in hoi or 
hoy (to-day). 

There is no equivalent in the English language for the 
German diphthong ui but oo, ee, as these double vowels 
are heard when pronounced closely connected in two syl- 
lables. The French approach this sound, in some degree, 
in their affirmative adverb oui, yes. The Spaniards have 
it in their pronoun cuiyo ; and the Italians, in their cui. 

The yott, or \, when considered as a consonant, is pro- 
nounced like y in the words yonder, yore, year, you, &c. 



Particular Remarks on the Vowels. 

The double vowels aa r u t 00/ forming one syllable, as well 
as at)/ el)/ tl> ol)/ uf)/ and ie/ merely show that the syllable is 
long. 

23aai'/ ready money ; SSaarS, perch (a fish); $Raa$, pot, 
measure; 2oo6/ lot, fate; loofen/ to draw lots; ©d)oofj/lap; 
sBlaaU monument, &c, are now written with one vowel, 
thus :— SBav, $8at$ f 9XaS/ £o3/ tofem (£a)o£, QHat. 

The double vowel forms two syllables in SSaal and its 
derivatives, and in words in which the particle ge or be is 
followed by a vowel. 

c 3 



18 

it is a monosyllable in $nte, knee, in the singular number; 
and a dissyllable in the plural — $me, knees. This combi- 
nation is likewise a monosyllable in words of foreign origin, 
in which the i receives the tonic accent, and forms one 
syllable with t, as in harmonic/ harmony ; SJMobte, melody ; 
-poefte/ poetry, &c. But it makes two syllables in %i\t, air, 
song, tune ; %\ier\, Asia ; gamilie, family, &c. 

The combination ee (ee) is a monosyllable in (See/ lake, 
sea ; TUttmt, army ; and a dissyllable in the plural number 
of these words. 

With regard to the single e, the student should bear in 
mind that this vowel is sometimes close, or shut, and some- 
times open. It is close in the first syllable of the words 
geroefeit/ btabi&n, lieben/ fyebem &c. ; and in words of two 
syllables, the first of which alone has an e in it : as, iemanb/ 
etrvaS, £>emurt), &c. It is open in the monosyllables fern/ 
(Stern, er/ bet, rcer, bem, tpent/ ben/ roen$ in the first syllable 
of beten, geben, geber, &c. St) is long, and pronounced nearly 
like a in fate. 

tt £>/ and it are more used than %e, £>/ and Ue $ and the 
first of these softened vowels is pronounced like the German 
6/ with a long or short quantity, according to the general 
rule given in a preceding note. The 6 is long in @tor? 
sturgeon ; iobtltd), mortal ; StbniQ/ king ; Zbtve f lion ; SKobre, 
pipe, &c; and short in ^Sorter/ words; ©t6rd)e/ storks; 
gottltd)/ godly, divine ; Golfer, people, nations, &c. U/ or &, 
is pronounced like ue in the French words rue, vue, due? 
&c. It is long in fiber/ upon ; fufyren, to lead, conduct ; 
fu^len/ to feel ; glutfltd)/ lucky, successful ; entjutfenb/ charmed, 
delighted ; gluffe/ rivers ; ©prucfe, sentences, &c. 

As a general rule, the combinations ae, oe f ei/ and uw are 
pronounced as two syllables in words not of German origin, 
as : — ^erometrie, aerometry ; $pfyaeton< phaeton ; ^oet/ poet ; 
2£ti)etjl/ Atheist ; Sefuittgm/ Jesuitism, &c. 

The consonants 2?/ £>, g, £, £, ®l, %t, ty, yfy m, &$>/ and 
Z f have the same powers as in English w r ords. All the 



19 

other letters of the alphabet having been already noticed, 
the student has now sufficient instruction to enable him to 
pronounce German with tolerable accuracy, 



CHAPTER II. 



CONJUGATION OF THE 
IN EVERY FORM IN 
OCCUR. 



AUXILIARY VERBS, 
WHICH THEY CAN 



jtonnen, can. 



Present Tense.. 



Affirmatively, 
3co fann, I can 
X>u fannfi/ thou canst 
(5r fa nil/ he can 
©ie !ann/ she can 
(5S !ann/ it can 
SBtr fonnen, we can 
3fyr lonnet, you can 
©ie fonnen/ they can. 

Interrogatively. 
&ann i<i) ? Can I ? 
.ftannft bu ? Canst thou ? 

£ann er ? Can he ? 
ilann fte ? Can she ? 
£ann eg? Can it? 
jlonnen ictrr Can we ? 
bonnet inr ? Can you ? 
fonnen fie ? Can they ? 



N egativeiy , 
3d) fann ntd)t, I cannot 
£u fannjt nid)t/ thou canst not 
(Sr fann mdjt/ he cannot 
Bit fann nid)r, she cannot 
(£$ fann nid)t/ it cannot 
2Btr fonnen nidbt, we cannot 
3br fonnet ntdit/ you cannot 
@te fonnen ntd)t, they cannot. 

Interrogatively and Negatively, 
•ivann id) nid)t ? Can I not r 
£annft ou nid)t ? Canst thou 

not? 
£ann er md)t ? Can he not ? 
dtann fte nid^t ? Can she not? 
£ann eg ntd)t ? Can it not ? 
£6nnen tutr ntdit ? Can we not ? 
bonnet tyz merit ? Can you not ? 
fonnen fte ntc^t ? Can they 
not? 



20 



Imperfect Tense. 



Affirmatively. 
3d) fonnte/ I could 
2)u fonntejt/ thou couldst 

(£r fonnte^ he could 
<25ie fonnte/ she could 
@g fonnte^ it could 
SGSir fonnten/ we could 

3fyr fonntet, you could 
@tc fonnten, they could. 



Interrogatively, 
fonnte ic^ ? Could I ? 
£onntejt bu ? Couldst thou ? 

fonnte er ? Could he ? 
fonnte fie ? Could she ? 

fonnte eS ? Could it ? 
Jtonnten xoit ? Could we ? 

fonntet itjc ? Could you ? 

fonnten fie ? Could they ? 



Negatively. 
3d) fonnte nicl)t, I could not 
2)u fonntefl nid)t, thou couldst 

not 
(gr fonnte nidjt/ he could not 
©ie fonnte ntdjt, she could not 
(§§ fonnte ntd^t/ it could not 
2Btr fonnten nid)t/ we could 

not 
Sfyr f onntet md)t/ you could not 
<Ste fonnten nicfyt/ they could 

not. 

Interrogatively and Negatively, 
fonnte id) md)t ? Could I not ? 
ivonnteft bu ntd)t? Couldst 

thou not ? 
fonnte er md)t ? Could he not ? 
fonnte fte ntd)t ? Could she 

not? 
fonnte eg nic^t ? Could it not ? 
fonnten nrir ntd)t ? Could we 

not? 
fonntet tyx ntd)t ? Could you 

not? 
fonnten fte md)t ? Could they 

not? 



fJRogen, may. 

Present Tense. 
Affirmatively . Negatively. 

3d) mag, I may 3* ma% nid)t, I may not 

£)u ma<$/ thou mayst 2)u magft nid)t/ thou mayst not 



21 



Qi mag/ he may 
©te mag/ she may 
6§ mag/ it may 
SBtr mogen/ we may 
3t)r moget/ you may 
©ie mogen/ they may. 

Interrogatively. 
3Kag id^ ? May I ? 
sfltagjl ou ? Mayst thou ? 

5Kag ei* ? May he ? 
Sftag fte ? May she ? 

5CRog eS ? May it ? 
fDlfigen ioic ? May we ? 

SJtoget ti>r ? May you ? 

SDRogen fte ? May they ? 



(St mag ntcfct/ he may not 
©te mag ntd)t, she may not 
(§§ mag ntd)t, it may not 
2Bir mogen ntdjt/ we may not 
Sfyr moger nid)t# you may not 
©te mogen md)t, they may 
not. 

Interrogatively and Negatively. 
3J?ag t<^ ntcfct ? May I not ? 
SJtoaJt bu ntdjt ? Mayst thou 

not? 
!Blag er ntdbt ? May he not ? 
COcag fte nid)t ? May she 

not? 
*Dtag eS nicfyt ? May it not ? 
SOIogen urir md)t ? May we 

not? 
SOloget ti>r nid)t ? May you 

not? 
Sftfigen fte md)t? May they 

not? 



Imperfect Tense. 

Affirmatively. 
3d) m6d)tc/ I might 
£)u mocfyteft/ thou mightst 



<£r mod)te/ he might 
©ie mod)te, she might 
<5s mod)tc/ it might 
2Bir mocfytem we might 

3t)r mod)tet/ you might 
©ie m5d}ten, they might. 



Negatively. 
3c!) modjte md)t/ I might not 
£)u modjtejl nid)t/ thou might- 

est not 
dt mod)te md)t/ he might not 
@ie mod)te ntd)t, she might not 
(££ mod)te ntd)t/ it might not 
2Btr mod)ten ntcbt/ we might 

not 
3fyc mod)tetntd)t/you might not 
©te molten ni<ft/ they might 

not. 



22 



Interrogatively. 
SDfl6d>tc id) ? Might I ? 
SK6d)tcjl bu ? Mightst thou ? 

€)JZ6cbte er? Might he ? 

2!Xod)te fte ? Might she ? 

93?6d)te e$ ? Might it ? 
SER6d)ten ttrir ? Might we ? 

3Bl6d)tei tt)c ? might you ? 

3X6d):en fte ? Might they ? 



Interrogatively and Negatively. 
?D?6rf)te id) nid)t ? Might I not ? 
9DWd)tefl bu nid)t? Mightst 

thou not ? 
9X6d)te er. ni*t ? Might he 

not? 
9R6d)te fie md)t ? Might she 

not ? 
?0?6d)te e$ nid^t ? Might it not ? 
S$6d)ten nrir nid)t ? Might we 

not? 
SK5d)tet i$r md)t ? Might you 

not? 
9Jl5d)ten fte nid)t ? Might they 

not ? 



©oil en/ shall. 

Present Tense. 



Affirmatively. 
3d) foil, I shall 
£)u fottft, thou shalt 
@r foil/ he shall 
©te foil/ she shall 
SS foil/ it shall 
2£tr follen/ we shall 
3*)t follet, you shall 
©te follen/ they shall. 

Interrogatively, 
©oil id) ? Shall I ? 
©ollji bu ? Shalt thou ? 

©oil er ? Shall he ? 



Negatively. 
3d) foil nid)t, I shall not 
§)u follft ntcfct, thou shalt not 
(Sr foil md)t/ he shall not 
©te foil nid)t, she shall not 
@S foil ntd)t/ it shall not 
s JStr follen ntdjt/ we shall not 
3f)r follet nid)t, you shall not 
©te follen md)t, they shall not. 

Interrogatively and Negatively, 
©oil id) nid)t ? Shall I not ? 
©ottjt bu nid)t? Shalt thou 

not? 
©oil ev ntd)t ? Shall he not ? 



23 



©oil fie ? Shall she ? 
(Soil eg ? Shall it ? 
©ollen roir ? Shall we ? 

©ollettr,r? Shall you? 
Pollen fte ? Shall they ? 



(Soil fie nidjt ? Shall she not ? 
©oil eg mrf)t ? Shall it not ? 
©ollen »tr md)t ? Shall we 

not? 
©oiletiljr nidjt? Shall you not? 
©ollen fte nidjt ? Shall they not? 



Imperfect Tense. 



Affirmatively. 
3d) follte, I should 
£)u follte ft, thou shouldst 

(gr follte, he should 
©te follte/ she should 
(53 follte/ it should 
SBtr folltcn/ we should 
31)* folltet/ you should 
©ie follten, they should. 



Interrogatively, 
©ollte id)? Should I? 
©ollteft bu ? Shouldst thou ? 

©ollte er ? Should he ? 

©ollte fie ? Should she ? 

©ollte e§ ? Should it ? 
©ollten xoxt ? Should we ? 

©olltet fyr ? Should you ? 

©ollten fie ? Should they ? 



Negatively. 
3d) follte md)t/ I should not 
£)u follteft ntctit/ thou shouldst 

not 
<5r follte nidjt, he should not 
©ie follte nidjt, she should not 
<S§ follte nidjt, it should not 
2£tr follten nid)t/ we should not 
3$r folltet nid)t/ you should not 
©ie follten ntdijt, they should 

not. 

Interrogatively and Negatively, 
©ollte id) nid)t ? Should I not ? 
©ollteft bu nid)t? Shouldst 

thou not ? 
©ollte er nidjt ? Should he 

not? 
©ollte fte nidjt ? Should she 

not? 
©ollte eg nidjt ? Should it not ? 
©ollten xoxi ntd&t ? Should we 

not? 
©olltet itjr nidjt ? Should you 

not? 
©ollten fie md)t ? Should they 

not? 



24 



SSBollen, will. 


Present 


Tense. 


Affirmatively. 


Negatively. 


3d) »ill* I will 


3d) Will nici)t, I will not 


2)u ttullft/ thou wilt 


2)u willft nid)t/ thou wilt not 


(gr will/ he will 


Qx will ntd)t/ he will not 


@ie will/ she will 


©ie Will nid)t/ she will not 


@S will/ it will 


6$ will mdfct/ it will not 


2Bir wollen/ we will 


3Btr wollen ntd)t, we will not 


3§t rootlet/ you will 


3$c wollet nid)t, you will not 


©te wollen/ they will. 


©te wollen nid)t, they will not. 


Interrogatively. 


Interrogatively and Negatively. 


SBill id) ? Will I ? 


SBill id) nid}t ? Will I not ? 


SBtllft bu ? Wilt thou ? 


SBillfi bu nid)t ? Wilt thou not ? 


SBill er ? Will he ? 


2Sill.er ntdtf ? Will he not ? 


SBill fie ? Will she ? 


SBill fte md)t ? Will she not ? 


SBill e$ ? Will it ? 


SBill eg md)t ? Will it not ? 


Pollen ttrir ? Will we ? 


SBollen wir ntcbt? Will we 




not? 


SBollet ir.r ? Will you ? 


SBollet tyr nid)t ? Will you 




not? 


Pollen fte ? Will they ? 


Pollen fte md)t ? Will they 




not? 


Imperfect Tense. 


Affirmatively. 


Negatively. 


3d) wollte/ I would 


3d) wollte nid)t, I would not 


jDu trollteji/ thou wouldst 


£)u wolltefi nicbt/ thou wouldst 



(Sr wollte/ he would 
<Ste wollte/ she would 
(gg wollte/ it would 
SBir wollten; we would 
3t)r wolltet/ you would 
©ie wollteti; they would. 



not 
@r wollte ntd)t/ he would not 
©ie wollte ntcftt/ she would not 
@§ wollte nidht/ it would not 
SBir wotlten ntd)t, we would not 
3l)t wolltet nicH/ you would not 
<Sie wollten md)t, they would 

not. 



25 



Interrogatively. 
SBollte id) ? Would I ? 
fffiolltcjl bu ? Wouldst thou ? 

SBBolite er ? Would he ? 

SSSoUte jtc ? Would she ? 

SBotlte eg ? Would it ? 

SSBollten ttrir ? Would we ? 

SEolltet tyr ? Would you ? 

fOSolltcn fte ? Would they ? 



Interrogatively and Negatively. 
SEBoUtc id) nidjt ? WTould I not ? 
SQSoUteji bu nid)t ? Wouldst 

thou not ? 
SBSotlte er nid)t? W T ould he 

not? 
SBSollte fie md)t ? Would she 

not ? 
SffioUte eS ntcfct ? Would it 

not ? 
SSoliten ttrir nidjt ? W T ould we 

not? 
SBolltet tfcr nidjt ? Would you 

not? 
SBSollten fte nidjt ? Would they 

not? 



2Berben, to become, shall or will, &c. 

Present Tense. 



Negatively. 
3d) trerbe md)t/ I shall, or will 
not 
£u ttrir ji/ thou shalt, or wilt £)u ttrir jt nidjt/ thou shalt, or 

wilt not 
(£r toirb md)t/ he shall, or will 

not 
©te ttrirb ntdht, she shall, or 

will not 
(§§ ttrirb nid)t/ it shall, or will 
not 
SGStr roerben/ we shall, or will SBMr ir-erben ntcfyt/ we shall, or 

will not 
3fyr rcerbet/ you shall, or will 3fyr rcerbet nid)t/ you shall, or 

will not 

D 



Affirmatively. 
3d) werbc/ I shall, or will 



(gr toirb/ he shall, or will 
©ie ttrirb/ she shall/ or will 
@£ nrirb/ it shall, or will 



26 



?ie tuciben/ they shall, or ©ie meuben nid)t, they shall, 
will. or will not. 

Interrogatively and Negatively. 
2£erbc id) md)t ? Shall, or will I not ? 

Shalt, or wilt thou net ? 
Shall, or will he not ? 
Shall, or will she not ? 
Shall, or will it not ? 
SBSerben rotr ntdjjt ? Shall, or will we not ? 
SBerbet ifyr ntd)t ? Shall, or will you not ? 
SBSerben fte md)t ? Shall, or will they not? 



SSirfr bu nid)t ? 
SSirb er md)t ? 
SBirb fte ntd)t ? 
SBtrb e3 nidbt ? 



Subjunctive Mood. 

Imperfect Tense. 
Affirmatively. Negatively. 

3a> wui'be/ I should, or would 3d) wurbe nid)t ; I should, or 

would not 
£u rourbeft/ thou shouldst, or ^ureurbeftnidit, thou shouldst, 

wouldst or wouldst not 

(Si* murbe/ he should, or would (5r rcurbe nidbt; he should, or 

would not 
^Sie rc&rbe/ she should, or <Ste rourbe nid)t; she should, 

would or would not 

(£€ rourbe; it should, or would (gg nmtbe md)t; it should, or 

would not 
2Btr ruueben/ we should, or SQStr nmrben nidbt/ we should, 

would or would not 

3i)t nourbet/ you should, or S^ wurbct nid)t; you should, 

would or would not 

sste nnuben, they should, or <Sie rourben nid)t; they should, 
would. or would not. 

Interrogatively. Interrogatively and Negatively. 

SRfir.be.iA ? Should, or would SBurbe id) nidbt? Should, or 
I ? would I not ? 



27 



"SSurbejr bu? Shouldst, or 

wouldst thou ? 
SGSurbe er ? Should, or would 

he? 
££urbe fie ? Should, or would 

she? 
SBfirbe eS ? Should, or would 

it? 
Sffiurben trie? Should, or 

would we ? 
gBurbet it)r ? Should, or would 

you ? 
SBurben fie ? Should, or 

would they ? 



Sffifirbeft bu nidjt ? Should, or 

wouldst thou not ? 
SOSurbe er nidst ? Should, or 

would he not ? 
2£utbe jte nicht ? Should, or 

would she not ? 
SBSurbe eg ntdbt ? Should, or 

would it not ? 
SBurben rotr md)t ? Should, or 

would we not ? 
SGSurbet ijr niefct ? Should, or 

would you not ? 
SSurben fie nid)t ? Should, or 

would they not ? 



The Auxiliary and Active Verb QabPXl, to have. 



Indicative Mood. 
Present Tense. 



Affirmatively. 
3d) fyaUt I have 
£u fyaft/ thou hast 
<5r fyat, he has 
©ie fyat, she has 
2Bir fyabeii/ we have 
3fyr ^abztt you have 
@ie £)aben, they have. 

Interrogatively. 
%abt id) ? Have I ? 
£afx b\x} Hast thou ? 
$at er ? Has he? 
£at ftc ? Has she ? 
*&aben rotr ? Have we ? 



Negatively. 
3d) fabe nid)t, I have not 
£)u fyaft rrid)ti thou hast not 
(§r fyat nid)t/ he has not 
(Ste fyat md)t/ she has not 
2Bir fyaben nid)t/ we have not 
StyE fya&et nid)t/ you have not 
©te fyaben nid)t/ they have note 

Interrogatively and Negatively, 
£abe id) nid)t ? Have I not ? 
4?a# bu nid)t ? Hast thou not ? 
Jgat er nid)t ? Has he not ? 
Jg>at fie ntd)t? Has she not ? 
^aben uur nidn? Have we 
not? 



28 



£abet tyt ? Have you ? 

£abcn fte ? Have thev ? 



£abet tfyv. nid)t ? Have you 

not? 
£aben fte ntrf)t ? Have they 

not? 



Affirmatively. 
34 $atte, I had 
2)u "^atteft/ thou hadst 

(§t tjatte/ he had 
©te ^attc/ she had 
SBit fatten/ we had 
3§r l)attet, you had 
@te fatten/ they had. 



Imperfect Tense. 

Negatively. 
3d) tjatte nid)t/ I had not 
2)u tjatteft md)t/ thou hadst 

not 
(5r tjatte ntdjt/ he had not 
<Ste fyatte nidjt/ she had not 
&Bir fatten md)t/ we had not 
3^ fyattet ntd)t/ you had not 
©ie fatten md)t, they had not. 



Interrogatively. 
£atte td) ? Had I ? 
£aite# bu ? Hadst thou ? 

4?atte er ? Had he ? 
£atte fte ? Had she ? 
fatten tt>tt ? Had we ? 

$attet tyr ? Had you ? 
fatten fte ? Had they ? 



Interrogatively and Negatively. 
£atte id) nidjt ? Had I not ? 
£atteft bu md;t ? Hadst thou 

not? 
#atte er ntcfyt ? Had he not ? 
£atte fte nid)t ? Had she not ? 
fatten rotr mci)t ? Had we 

not? 
4?attet ifc nid)t ? Had you not r 
fatten fte nidjt? Had they 

not? 



Future Tense. 



Affirmatively. 
34 trerte fyaberi/ I shall, or 

will have 
2)u urirft fyaben, thou shalt, or 

wilt have 
G£c mtrb fyabm, he shall, or 

will have 



Negatively. 
3d) roerbe nid)t fyctben/ I shall, 

or will not have 
Sunrirft md)t fyaben, thou shall, 

or wilt not have 
(Sr. roirb titd)t fyaben, he shalL 

or will not have 



29 



$Bir werben fyaben, we shall, 

or will have 
3fyc werbet fyaben, you shall, 

or will have 
©ie werben r/dbem they shall, 

or will have. 

Interrogatively. 
28erbe id) fyaben? Shall, or 

will I have ? 
SBBtrft bu t)aben? Shalt, or wilt 

thou have ? 
£Birb er fyctbert ? Shall, or will 

he have ? 
£3erben xoxx. fyaben ? Shall, or 

will we have ? 
*2Berbet i£)r i;aben ? Shall, or 

will you have ? 
SBerben fee fyaben? Shall, or 

will they have ? 



SBStt tt?erbennic()t t)aben# we shall, 

or will not have 
3t)r rcerbet ntcfet tyabeti/ you 

shall, or will not have. 
Bie roerben md)t fyaben/ they 

shall, or will not have. 

Interrogatively and Negatively. 
SJerbe id) nutt fyaben ? Shall, 

or will I not have ? 
SBStrft bu md)t ^aben ? Shalt, 

or wilt thou not have ? 
2Birb er nidjt r>aben? Shall, 

or will he not have? 
SSerben ttrit tud)t fyaben ? Shall, 

or will we not have ? 
SBerbet ityt nidbt fyaben? Shall, 

or will you not have ? 
Herbert fie ntcbt tyabm ? Shall, 

or will they not have ? 



Conditional Mood. 



Present 
Affirmatively. 
3d) murbe ijaben/ I would, or 

should have 
iDutufirbeptjabeti/thouwouldst, 
or shouldst have 

<5r rourbe t)aben, he would, or 

should have 
2Btr tpurben fyaUxii we would, 

or should have 
3fyc rcurbet rjaben/ you would, 

or should have 
Sie rourben fyabzxx, they would? 

or should have. 



Tense. 

Negatively. 
3d) tourbe nidit t)aben/ I would, 

or should not have 
£>u ttmrbeft ntd)t fyaben/ thou 

wouldst, or shouldst not 

have 
Sr xvixxbe ntdjt fyaben, he would, 

or should not have 
SBStr murben nid)t tyabeii/ we 

would, or should not have 
3§r rourbet nid)t bjaben, you 

would, or should not have 
<Ste ttmrben ntd)t tjaben/ they 

would/ or should not have. 

D 3 



30 



Interrogatively. 
SBurbe id) fyaben ? Would, or 

should I have ? 
SBSrbejibu f)aben? Wouldst, or 

shouldst thou have ? 

SBurbe er fyaben ? Would, or 

should he have ? 
SBurben rotr fyaben ? Would, 

or should we have ? 
SBurbet ifyr Ijaben? Would, or 

should you have? 
SBurben fte fyaben ? Would, or 

should they have ? 



Interrogatively and Negatively. 
SBurbe id) nid)t fyaben ? Would, 

or should I not have ? 
Sffiurbejr bu md)t fyabert ? 

Wouldst, or shouldst thou 

not have ? 
SBurbe er ntd)t t)aben ? Would, 

or should he not have ? 
2Burbenttnrntd}t fyabert ? Would, 

or should we not have ? 
SBurbet tfyr ntd)tt)aben ? Would, 

or should you not have ? 
SBurben fie ntd)t fyaben ? Would, 

or should they not have ? 



Imperative Mood. 



Affirmatively* 
$qU (bu)/ have (thou) 
$abz er/ let him have 

$aUn roto let us have 

£abt (tt)r)/ do you have 
£aben [u, let them have. 



Negatively. 
%ake (bu) nid)t, do not have 
£abe er mcfyr, do not let him 

have 
$aben ttrir nid)t/ do not let us 

have 
%aht tfyr nicrjt, do not have 
Jgabcn fte md)t, do not let them 

have. 



Subjunctive Mood. 

Present Tense. 
Affirmatively. Negatively. 

£)a£ id) r;abe/ that I have Dafj id) ntd)t r;abe/ that I have 

not 
£af bu 'gabeft? that thou have £)afj bu nid)t fyabejl, that thou 

have not 
>Dag er %aU, that he have Oaf er nid)t fyabe/ that he have 

not 



31 

Dag ttric fyaben, that we have Dag nrir nidjt Ijaben, that we 

have not 
Dag tyr ^abet/ that you have Dag "ifjr ntc^t t)abet/ that you 

have not 
Dag fte Ijaben/ that they have. Dag fie nicJjt tjaben/ that they 

have not. 

Imperfect Tense. 

Affirmatively . Negatively. 

SBenn id) i)dtte, if I had ££enn id) nidjt fjdtte, if I had 

not 
2£enn tu t)dtte{l/ if thou hadst 2£enn bu nidjt tjdtteft, if thou 

hadst not 
SKenn er t)dtte/ if he had SSknn er nidjt fjatte/ if he had 

not 
££enn roir fatten, if we had Sffienn nnr nidjt fatten/ if we 

had not 
£8enn tfjr fedttet, if you had 2Benn tl)t nidjt tjdttet, if you 

had not 
28enn jte fatten/ if they had. SEcnn fte nidjt fatten/ if they 

had not. 

Compounded Form. 

Present Tense. 

Affirmatively. Negatively. 

3d) $abz getjabt, I have had 3d) fyabe nidjt gefjabt, I have 

not had 
Du fjafr gcbabt/ thou hast had Du fyaft nidjt getjabt/ thou hast 

not had 
<Sr fyat geljabt/ he has had dt tyat nidjt gefjabt/ he has not 

had 
SSir fyaben gefjabt, we have had 2Bir fyaben nidjt gefjabt, we have 

not had 
3fyr ijabet Q&abt f you have had 3^c fyabet nidjt getjabt/ you have 

not had 
©te fyaben getjabt/ they have Sie tjaben nidjt getjabt/ they 
had. have not had. 



32 

Interrogatively. Interrogatively and Negatively. 

•£abe ify gefyabt ? Have I had ? Jgabe id) md)t getjabt ? Have I 

not had ? 

£aft \m getyabt? Hast thou *g>aft bu ntdjt gebabt? Hast 

had ? thou not had ? 

gat er getjabt ? Has he had ? Jfrat er nidjt gefyabt ? Has he 

not had ? 

#aben rmr ge^abt ? Have we «£>aben rrrir mcftt geljabt ? Have 

had we not had ? 

Sbabzt tt>u gefyabt? Have you $abet t§r nid)t ge^abt ? Have 

had ? you not had ? 

Soabzn fte gefyabt ? Have they £ctben fte ntcbt geqctbt ? Have 
had ? they not had ? 

Imperfect Tense. 

Affirmatively. Negatively. 

3d) fyatte gefyabr/ I had had 3$ fyatte nid)t ger>abt, I had 

not had 
Du tyatteft ge^abt/ thou hadst 2>u fyatteft n£d)t gefyabt, thou 

had hadst not had 

(5r battc ge^abf/ he had had (gr tjatte nicfyt gefyabt, he had 

not had 
2£tr fatten gebjabt, we had had Sffitr fatten ntd)t gefyabt/ we had 

not had 
3fjr ^attet gefyabt, you had had 3$t tjattet ntd)t getjabt, you had 

not had 
©tc fatten gefyabt, they had <2te fatten md)t getyabt/ they 
had. had not had. 

Interrogatively. Interrogatively and Negatively, 

Sbaitt id) geljabt ? Had I had? £atte td) md)t gefyabt ? Had I 

not had ? 
£atteft bu gefjabt? Hadst £attejl bu ntd)t getjabt ? Hadst 

thou had ? thou not had ? 

£atte er get;abt ? Had he had ? $attt er ntd)t get)abt ? Had he 

not had? 



33 



fatten ttit gefyabt ? Had we 

had? 
£attet tyt gefyabt ? Had you 

had? 
fatten fie gefyabt ? Had they 

had? 



fatten wit nid)t gebabt ? Had 

we not had ? 
Jgattet ityt inert Qthabt? Had 

you not had ? 
fatten fte ntd)t gefyabt? Had 

thev not had ? 



Future Tense, 



Affirmatively. 
3d) roei-be getjabt ^aberi/ I shall, 

or will have had 
£)u nrirfr gefyabt fyaben, thou 

shalt, or wilt have had 

@r tt)trb getyabt fyabeti/ he shall, 

or will have had 
3Btr roerben gefyabt fyaben, we 

shall, or will have had 

3^r roerbet gefyabt tjaben/ you 
shall, or will have had 

&& merben gefyabt fyaben, they 
shall, or will have had. 



Negatively, 
3cb r&erbe ntd)t getjabt t;abeti/ I 

shall, or will not have had 
£u urirjt ntd)t gebabt fyaben, 

thou shalt, or wilt not have 

had 
(ix with nicH gebabt fyabeii/ he 

shall, or will not have had 
3Btt irerben nid)t gefyabt fyaben/ 

we shall, or will not have 

had 
3fyr roerbet md)t gefyabt fyaben./ 

you shall, or will not 

have had 
@tc werben nidt getjabt fyaben/ 

they shall, or will not have 

had. 



Interrogatively. 
SBerbe id) ge^abt fjaben ? Shall, 
or will I have had ? 

SBirft bu gefyabt fyaben ? Shalt, 
or wilt thou have had ? 

2Btrb er. gefyabt Ijaben ? Shall, 
or will he have had ? 



Interrogatively and Negatively. 
3Betbe id) Hid): ge:abt fyaben ? 

Shall, or will I not have 

had? 
gBtrji bit md)t gefyabt fyaben ? 

Shalt, or wilt thou not 

have had ? 
$3tri> er ntdjt gebabc fyabenr 

Shall, or will he not have 

had? 



34 



SScrbcn ir>tv gc^abt t)abcn ? Shall, 
or will we have had' 

SBerbet u)r ge^abt rjaben ? Shall, 
or will you have had ? 

uSerben fie qetyabt fyaben? Shall, 
or will they have had ? 



SBecben tpir ntcfyt ge^abt ^aben ? 

Shall, or will we not have 

had? 
SKSerbet ifyr md)t ge^abt fyaben ? 

Shall, or will you not have 

had? 
Berben fte nid)t ge^abt fjaben ? 

Shall, or will they not have 

had? 



Conditional Mood. 
Past 



Affirmatively. 
3d) wurbegebabt babeii/I should, 
or would have had 

2)u vpurbef: gefyabt $aben# thou 
shouldst, or wouldst have 
had 

Qt umrbe ge^abv fyaberw he 
should, or would have had 

SKr untrfcen gefyabt t)Qben/ we 
should, or would have had 

3£)t murbet gefyabt fyaberi/ you 
should, or would have had 

©te rourben ge^abt fyaben, they 
should, or would have had. 



Interrogatively. 

SBfobe tcbgefyabt fyaben? Would, 

or should I have had ? 



Tense. 

Negatively. 
3d) n?urbe md)t geljabt fyaberi/ I 

should, or would not have 

had 
£>u rourbeji nicftt getjabt t)aben ; 

thou shouldst, or wouldst 

not have had 
@r rofirbe ntcbt ge^abt ^aben, he 

should, or would not have 

had 
2£tr rourben nidjt gcl;abt fyaberi/ 

we should, or would not 

have had 
Sfyr nmrbet nidjt gefyabt fyaben, 

you should, or would not 

have had 
©ie rourben nicfyt $efyabt tyabeti/ 

they should, or would not 

have had. 

Interrogatively and Negatively. 
SBfiube id) nidbt getjabt fyaben ? 

Would, or should I not 

have had ? 



35 



SQSfirbcffc bit qefyabt tyaben ? 
Wouldst, or shouldst thou 
have had ? 

2£urbe er get;abt fyaben ? Would, 
or should he have had ? 

SBurben \v\t gefyctbt fyaben ? 

Would, or should we have 

had? 
SBurbet tyv gebabt fyaben? 

Would, or should you 

have had ? 
fBSurben fte gefectbt fyabtn ? 

Would, or should they 

have had ? 



22urbejt bit nicfet ge^abt fyaben ? 

Wouldst, or shouldst thou 

not have had ? 
SSurbe er ntcfyt gefyabt bjabea ? 

Would, or should he not 

have had ? 
fSSurben ttrir md)t gefyabt fjaben ? 

Would, or should we not 

have had ? 
2£utbet ibr nid)t getjabt fjaben ? 

Would, or should you not 

have had ? 
2$urben fte nid)t Qtyabt fyaben ? 

Would, or should they not 

have had ? 



Potential Mood. 

Present Tense. 
Affirmatively. Negatively. 

3d) fann fyaben/ I can have 3$ fann nid)t fyaben, I cannot 

have 
Du fannft tjaberi/ thou canst £u fannft nid)t t)aben/ thou 

have canst not have 

G£r fann fyabeiv he can have (§r fann nidjt fyaben/ he cannot 

have 
§8$ir fonnen fyaben/ we can have SGStr fonnen nidbt fyaben/ we 

cannot have 
3*)t f6nnet fyaben, you can 3$r fonnet ntdjt tyaben/ you 

have cannot have 

@te fonnen fyctben/ they can (gtc fonnen nid)t fyabeti/ they 
have. cannot have. 

Interrogatively. Interrogatively and Negatively. 

Mann i§ tyabzn ? Can I have ? Mann i§ nidjt fyaben ? Can I 

not have ? 
ftannft bu fyaben? Canst thou fannft bu ntcbt f)aben ? Canst 
have ? thou not have ? 



36 



^ann er i)aben? Can he have? 

$6rmen toil t)aben ? Can we 

have ? 
bonnet ity i)oben? Can you 

have ? 
£6nnen fte t)aben? Can they 

have ? 



£ann er nid)t fyaben ? Can he 

not have ? 
£6nnen ttrir ntd)t kabm? Can 

we not have ? 
bonnet it)r md)t tyaben? Can 

you not have ? 
£6nnen fte ntd)t fyaben ? Can 

they not have ? 



The Auxiliary and Neuter Verb (gjetn, to be. 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 



Affirmatively. 
3d) bin/ I am 
£>u btji/ thou art 
(St ift, he is 
(Ste tfl/ she is 
2Btt ftnb/ we are 
3t)c fetb/ you are 
©ie ftnb/ they are. 

Interrogatively. 
23in id) ? Am I ? 
SBijl bu ? Art thou ? 
3ft er ? Is he ? 
3ft fte ? Is she ? 
©tn& ttnr ? Are we ? 
©etb 3^ ? Are you ? 
©inb fte ? Are they ? 



Negatively. 
3d) bin nid)t/ I am not 
SDu toft ntd)t/ thou art not 
Gsr tjt ntd)t, he is not 
©te tjt md)t/ she is not 
2Btr ftnb ntdjt/ we are not 
3*)r fetb md)t/ you are not 
©te ftnb nid)t/ they are not. 

Interrogatively and Negatively. 
SBin id) ntd)t ? Am I not ? 
SBtjl bu ntd)t? Art thou not? 
3ft er md)t ? Is he not ? 
3ft fte ntd)t ? Is she not ? 
©tnb tt>ir mcbt ? Are we not ? 
©cib i^r ntd)t? Are you not? 
©tnb fte md)t? Are they not? 



Affirmatively. 
3d) roar/ I was 
£)u rrxtrjr/ thou wast 
(£r rear/ he was 



Imperfect Tense. 



Negatively. 
3d) mar ntd)t, I was not 
£)u trarjr md)t/ thou wast not 
(5r wax md)t/he was not 



37 



©tc war/ she was 
SBir »areri/ we were 
St)t waret, you were 
©ie waren/ they were, 

Interrogatively. 
$&at id) ? Was I ? 
SBarjt bu ? Wast thou ? 
fffiar er ? Was he ? 
2Bar fte ? Was she ? 
5 2Baren wtr ? Were we ? 
28aret tyr ? Were you ? 
SBaren fte ? Were they ? 



(§?t€ war md)t/ she was not 
9Bir waren ntd)t, we were not 
3fyt rraret ntdjt/ you were not 
(£ie raaten nid)t/ they were not. 

Interrogatively and Negatively. 
SBar id) nid)t ? Was I not ? 
SBarjrbumdjt? Wast thou not? 
2Bar er md)t ? Was he not ? 
SBar fte nicf)t ? Was she not ? 
2£aren wtr ntdE>t ? Were we not ? 
S£aretu)tntd)t? Were you not? 
SBaren fte nidjt ? Were they 
not ? 



Compound Forms. 

Present Tense. 

Affirmatively. Negatively. 

34) bin gewefen, I have been 3d) bin nid)t gewefen, I have 

not been 
£)u bifr gewefeti/ thou hast been £)u btft titer; t gewefen/ thou hast 

not been 
dt ifr gewefen, he has been Grr if: ni<§t gewefen/ he has not 

been 
©ie tjt gewefen/ she has been ©te ift nidjt geraefen/ she has 

not been 
2Btr ftnb gewefeti/ we have been 2Btr ftnb nid)t gewefeti/ we have 

not been 
3fyr fetb gewefen/ you have been 3^ fetb nid)t gewefen/ you have 

not been 
©ie ftnb gewefen/ they have <Sie ftnb mcf)t gewefen/ they 
been. have not been. 

Interrogatively. Interrogatively and Negatively. 

23in id) gewefen ? Have I £5in id) nicbt gcwefen ? Have 
been ? I not been ? 

E 



38 



Sift bu geroefen ? Hast thou 

been ? 
3ft cr geroefen ? Has he been ? 

3ft fie geroefen ? Has she been ? 

! 2>tnb roir geroefen ? Have we 

been ? 
'Sett tfjr geroefen ? Have you 

been ? 
<Stnb fte geroefen? Have they 

been ? 



S3tft bu ntdjt geroefen ? Hast 

thou not been ? 
3ft er ntdjt geroefen? Has he 

not been ? 
3ft fte ntdjt geroefen ? Has she 

not been ? 
©tnb roir nidjt geroefen? Have 

we not been? 
<§eib tfjr nidjt geroefen ? 

you not been ? 
©inb fte nidjt geroefen ? 

they not been ? 



Have 
Have 



Compound Forms. 

Imperfect Tense. 



Affirmatively. 
3d) waz geroefen/ I had heen 



Negatively. 
3d) war nid)t geroefen/ I had 
not been 
£)u roarft geroefen, thou hadst £>u roarft nidjt geroefen/ thou 



been 
(Sir roar geroefen/ he had been 



hadst not been 
@r war ntdjt geroefen/ he had 
not been 
@te roar geroefen/ she had been ©te roar ntdjt geroefen/ she had 

not been 
2Bir roaren geroefen/ we had SBSir roaren ntdjt geroefen/ we 

been had not been 

3£jr roaret geroefen/ you had 3^ roaret ntdjt geroefen/ you 

been had not been 

©te roaren geroefen/ they had @te roaren ntdjt geroefen/ they 
been. had not been. 

Interrogatively. Interrogatively and Negatively. 

28ar id) geroefen ? Had I been ? SGktr tdj nidjt geroefen ? Had 

I not been ? 
2Barft bu geroefen ? Hadst thou SBarft bu ntdjt geroefen ? Hadst 
been ? thou not been ? 



39 



§Bac er gercefen r Had he been ? 

3Bar fte gercefen? Had she 

been ? 
SBaren wit gemefen ? Had we 

been ? 
SBaret ifyi geme[en? Had you 

been? 
Sffiaren fte gereefen? Had they 

been ? 

Future 

Affirmatively. 
3d) tttfrbe fetn/ I shall, or will 

be 
*Du ttrirft fetn/ thou shalt, or 

wilt be 
<5r ttnrb fcin# he shall, or will 

be 
*Ste rotrb fetn/ she shall, or 

will be 
2£tr roerben fetn/ we shall, or 

will be 
Sfyr roerbet fetn/ you shall, or 

will be 
©te merben fetn/ they shall, or 

will be. 

Interrogatively. 



SGSerbe id) fetn ? 

I be? 
SBtr ji bu fetn ? 

thou be ? 
SBirb er fetn ? 

he be? 
SBirb fte fetn ? 

she be ? 



Shall, or will 



Shalt, or wilt 



Shall, or will 
Shall, or will 



SSktr er nid)t geroefen r Had 

he not been ? 
£Bac fte nidjt gercefen? Had 

she not been ? 
SOSaren mir ntdjt ge&efen ? Had 

we not been ? 
SBaret ttyr mcf)t gewefen ? Had 

you not been ? 
gSaren fte ntd)t getrefen? Had 

they not been ? 

Tense. 

Negatively. 
3d) rcerbe md)t fetn/ I shall, or 

will not be 
£>u tt>trfr md)t fetn/ thou shalt, 

or wilt not be 
(5r tvizb ntd)t fetn/ he shall, or 

will not be 
@ie rotrb ntd)t fetn/ she shall, or 

will not be 
£8tr roerben nid)t fetn/ we shall 5 

or will not be 
3t)r rcerbet nidjt fetn/ you shall, 

or will not be 
©ie rcerben md)t fetn/ they shall, 

or will not be. 

Interrogatively and Negatively. 
SBerbe id) ntd)t fetn ? Shall, or 

will I not be ? 
SBBtrft bu nicfit fetn ? Shalt, or 

wilt thou not be ? 
SfBtrb er md)t fetn ? Shall, or 

will he not be ? 
SBirb fte nidjt fein ? Shall, or 

will she not be ? 



40 



SEBerten mir fetn ? Shall/ or 

will we be ? 
SBerbet fyt fein ? Shall, or 

will you be ? 
2£erben fie fetn ? Shall, or 

will they be ? 

Compound Forms of 
Affirmatively. 
3$ merbe gemefen fein# I shall, 

or will have been 
£!u mirjt gemefen fetn/ thou 

shalt, or wilt have been 
dt mtrb gemefen fetn/ he shall, 

or will have been 
Sir merben gemefen fetn/ we 

shall, or will have been 

3f)r merbet gemefen fein# you 
shall, or will have been 

©ie merben gemefen fein/ they 
shall, or will have been. 

Interrogatively. 
Serbe id) gemefen fetn ? Shall, 
or will I have been ? 

fOStrft bit gemefen fetn ? Shalt, 
or wilt thou have been ? 

fBSivb er gemefen fetn ? Shall, 
or will he have been ? 

Serbenmtt gemefen fetn? Shall, 
or will we have been ? 



Serben mir ntcfjt fein? Shall, 

or will we not be ? 
SBerbet tf)t ntd)t fein ? Shall, 

or will you not be ? 
Serben fte nicfyt fein ? Shall, 

or will they not be ? 
the Future Tense. 

Negatively. 
3cf) merbe niefct gemefen fetn/ 1 

shall, or will not have been 
£u mtvfi nici)t gemefen fein/ thou 

shalt, or wilt not have been 
(5c mirb md)t gemefen fein, he 

shall, or will not have been 
SBtr merben nid)t gemefen fetn/ 

we shall, or will not have 

been 
Sfyr merbet nidjt gemefen fein/ 

you shall, or will not have 

been 
©te merben nidjt gemefen fein/ 

they shall, or will not 

have been. 

Interrogatively and Negatively, 
SCerbe id) nidjt gemefen fetn ? 

Shall, or will I not have 

been ? 
fSStrft bu ntd)t gemefen fein ? 

Shalt, or wilt thou not 

have been ? 
SBtrb er nidjt gemefen fetn ? 

Shall, or will he not have 

been ? 
SBSerben mir nid)t gemefen fein ? 

Shall, or will we not have 

been ? 



41 



SOSerbet tfyr gercefen fetn ? Shall, 
or will you have been ? 

SBerben fie geroefen fetn ? Shall 5 
or will they have been ? 



fBerbet tyr nid)t gercefen fetn ? 

Shall, or will you not have 

been? 
SBevben fte nicfjt gettefen fetn ? 

Shall, or will they not 

have been ? 



Conditional Mood. 



Affirmatively. 
3d) rourbe fetn/ I would, or 

should be 
£)u timrbeffc fetrv thou wouldst, 

or shouldst be 
&t rcurbe fetn/ he would, or 

should be 
SQSir rtmrben fetn/ we would, or 

should be 
3fyr itmrbet fetn/ you would, or 

should be 
<Ste routben fetn/ they would, or 

should be. 

Interrogatively. 
Burbe id) fetn ? Would, or 

should I be 
Sffiurbeft bu fein ? Wouldst, or 

shouldst thou be ? 
2Burbe er fetn ? Would, or 

should he be ? 
SOSurben ttrir fetn ? Would, or 

should we be ? 
SB&firbet tyr fetn ? Would, or 

should you be ? 
aBfirben fte fetn ? Would, or 

should they be ? 



Negatively. 
3d) rcurbe ntd)t fetn/ I would, 

or should not be 
£)u rofabeft md)t fetn/ thou 

wouldst, or shouldst not be 
(Sr rourbe ntdjt fetn/ he would. 

or should not be 
£Btr rcurben ntdbt fetn/ we 

would, or should not be 
3$* wurbet ntd)t fein/ you 

would, or should not be 
<Ste umrben ntd)t fetn, they 

would,' or should not be. 

Interrogatively and Negatively. 
jE&urbe id) md)t fetn? Would, 

or should I not be ? 
S3urbeftbuntd)tfetn? Wouldst, 

or shouldst thou not be ? 
2Burbe er ntd)t fetn ? Would, 

or should he not be? 
££urben wit md)t fetn? Would, 

or should we not be ? 
2£urbet tyr nid^t fein? Would, 

or should you not be ? 
Burben fte nid;t fetn? W T ould, 

or should they not be ? 
e 3 



42 



Compound Forms of 
Affirmatively. 
3d) rourbe geroefen fein, I would, 
or should have been 

£>u roffcbefi gercefen fein ; thou 
wouldst, or shouldst have 
been 

(5c rourbe gercefen frity he 
would, or should have been 

SSic trurben gewefen fcth# we 

would, or should have been 

3f)t tt>urbet getrcfen fein/ you 
would, or should have been 

Bie rourben geruefen fetn/ they 
would, or should have been. 

Interrogatively. 

^urbe id) gewefen fein? Would, 

or should I have been ? 

SBurbejt bu gewcfen fetn? 

Wouldst, or shouldst thou 
have been ? 
5Burbe er geroefen fein? Would, 
or should we have been ? 

-&urben trie geirefen fein ? 

Would, or should we have 

been ? 
SBSftrbet tijr geroefen fein ? 

Would, or should you have 

been ? 



the Conditional Mood. 
Negatively. 
Set) trurbe tudjt gewcfen fein/ I 

would, or should not have 

been 
£u rourbeft ntcl;t geroefen fein/ 

thou wouldst, or shouldst 

not have been 
{Sr rourbe nid)t geroefen fein/ he 

would, or should not have 

been 
SBStt n?urten nidjt gemefen fein/ 

we would, or should not 

have been 
2>t)r nmrbct ntdjt geroefen fein/ 

you would, or should not 

have been 
g>te trurben nidfjt gewefen fetn/ 

they would,, or should not 

have been. 

Interrogatively and Negatively, 
SBurbe id) nidjt gewefen fein ? 

Would, or should I not 

have been ? 
'Burbeft bu nid)t geroefen fein ? 

W 7 ouldst, or shouldst thou 

not have been ? 
2£urbe er mcf)t geroefen fein ? 

Would, or should he not 

have been ? 
fEuvten npir ntd)t geroefen fein ? 

Would, or should we not 

have been ? 
Sffifirbet ifyr nid)t geroefen fetn ? 

Would, or should vou not 

have been ? 



48 

SBfaben fie geroefen fein ? SBSurten fie nidjt geroefen fein ? 
Would, or should they Would, or should they not 

have been ? have been ? 

Imperative Mood. 

Affirmatively. Negatively, 

^et b\Xf be (thou) ©ei bu md)t, be (thou) not 

Eei ttt let him be (set er ntdjt/ let him not be 

(Set fie/ let her be (Set fie nid)t, let her not be 

Set e§/ let it be @et eS nicfct/ let it not be 

©ein mio let us be (Sent wic nid)t/ let us not be 

<Setb tyv, be (ye, or you) ®tib tfyt md)t/ be (ye, or you) 

not 

©ein fie/ let them be. <Sein fie nidjt/ let them not be. 

Subjunctive Mood. 

Present Tense. 

Affirmatively. Negatively. 

&afj id) fet/ that I be £tafi id) nid)t fet/ that I be not 

Dctjj bu feift/ that thou be £af? bu nid)t fetjt/ that thou be 

not 
Tag er fet/ that he be £>afj er ntdfjt fei/ that he be not 

£>afj fie few that she be £ag fie md)t fet/ that she be not 

£)af e6 fet/ that it be £5afj eg ntdjt fet/ that it be not 

£ag nrir feten/ that we be £aj$ ruir nid)t feten/ that we be 

not 
£)afj tyt fetet, that you be £q$ tfyr ntd)t fetet, that you be 

not 
£aj? fie feten/ that they be. £>ajj fie nid)t feten, that they be 

not. 

Imperfect Tense. 

Affirmatively. Negatively. 

SBenn id) rodre/ if I were SBenntd) nidjt ware/if I were not 

SKSenn bu redveft/ if thou wert 5Benn bu nid)t rodtejT/ if thou 

wert not 
fSScnn er trdve/ if he were S8knnerntcfytware/ifhe were not 



44 



&£enn fte toaxe t if she were SGSenn fte md)t ware/ if she 

were not 
2Benn eg mare, if it were 5BenneSnid)ttt>are,ifitwere not 

28enn ttrir rodren, if we were SBenn ttur nid)t rodrert/ if we 

were not 
SSenn ttjr wdret, if you were SBenn tfyr nid)t rodret, if you 

were not 
2Benn fte tcarem if they were. SBenn fte nid)t wdren, if they 

were not. 



The Verb Sfyim, to do. 
Present Tense. 



Affirmatively. 
34 tyue, I do 
£)u t^uji/ thou dost 
(5r tyut, he does 
©te tfyut/ she does 
(S3 tfyut, it does 
SBtr tf)un, we do 
3fyr tfyut, you do 
©te tl;un/ they do. 

Interrogatively. 
£f)Ueirf)? Do I? 
$&uft bu ? Dost thou ? 

Si)ut er ? Does he ? 
Styut fte ? Does she ? 
£&ut e$ ? Does it ? 
Sfcun ttrir ? Do we ? 
£§ut tfyr ? Do you ? 
£§un fte ? Do they ? 

Affirmatively. 
3d) t^at/ I did 
2)u tfyatejl, thou didst 



Negatively. 
3$ tljue mrf)t/ I do not 
£)u t^uft mdf)t/ thou dost not 
@r t$ut ntd)t, he does not 
@ie ttyut nid)t/ she does not 
(56 tfyut md)t, it does not 
SBtr tfyun nfd)i> we do not 
3fyr tfyut md)t/ you do not 
©ic tt)un nid)t, they do not. 
Interrogatively and Negatively. 
Sfyue id) nidjr ? Do I not ? 
SEtyuft bu md)t? Dost thou 

not? 
Z\)\xt er ntd)t ? Does he not ? 
Sfjut fte md)t ? Does she not? 
Zi)\xt eS nidr)t ? Does it not ? 
Zfyun ttrir md)t ? Do we not ? 
Sfyut ifjr ntd)t ? Do you not ? 
Sfyun fte ntd)t ? Do they not ? 

Imperfect Tense, 

Negatively. 
34 tyat nid)t/ 1 did not 
£>u tfjatejt ntd)t, thou didst not 



45 

(St tyat, he did @r tf)at ntdjt/ he did not 

@te tt?at/ she did ©te t|)at ntdjt/ she did not 

dt tfyat, it did d$ t^at nid)t, it did not 

2Btt tfyafen, we did £8tr t^aten ntd)t, we did not 

3fyr t^atet/ you did Sfyr ttyatet ntdjt/ you did not 

@ie t^aten/ they did. 6te ttjaten ntd^t/ they did not. 

Interrogatively. Interrogatively and Negatively. 

Zfyatify} Did I? Zfyat id) ntd)t ? Did I not ? 

££)ateft bu ? Didst thou ? S&atejl &u md)t ? Didst thou 

not? 

£$at er. ? Did he ? Ztyat er ntdjt ? Did he not ? 

Sfjat fte ? Did she ? SSfyrt fie md?t ? Did she not ? 

Zfyat e6 ? Did it ? &§at e$ ntdjt ? Did it not ? 

Zfyatm nut ? Did we ? Styatcn nrir ntdjt ? Did we not ? 

Sfjatet ifjr ? Did you ? Sfjatet tyt ntd;t ? Did you not ? 

Sljaten fte ? Did they ? Sfjaten fte ntdjt ? Did they not ? 



The Regular Neuter Verb ©djer&etl, to jest. 

Indicative Mood. 

Present Tense. 

Affirmatively. Negatively. 

3$ f emerge, I jest 3d) fdjerge ntcbt/ I do not jest 

2)u fdjcrjej!/ thou jestest £)u fdjergejt ntdjt/ thou dost not 

jest 
(Sr fdjer$t, he jests (gr fdjer^t ntdjt, he does not jest 

2£tr fd)er§en/ we jest 2Btr fd;er§en nidjt/ we do not 

jest 
3fjr fdjerjet, you jest 3r;r fdjerget ntdjt/ you do not 

jest 
Sie fdjerjen, they jest. @te fdjeqen ntdjt/ they do not 

jest. 
Interrogatively. Interrogatively and Negatively, 

^djerje tdj ? Do I jest ? ©djerae id) ntdjt ? Do I not 



jest r 



46 



sd&erjcft bu? Dost thou jest? ®d>er$ej* bu nid)t ? Dost thou 

not jest ? 



^d)er$t er ? Does he jest ? 
^cfyergen nrir ? Do we jest ? 
@d)er5et ibr ? Do you jest ? 
®d)ersen fie ? Do they jest r 



Sd)er$t er nid)t ? Does he not 

jest? 
<5d)er$en roir ntdjt ? Do we not 

jest? 
Sdjer^et tyt ntdjt ? Do you not 

jest? 
<Sd)er§en fte nid^t ? Do they 

not jest ? 



Imperfect Tense. 



Affirmatively. 
3d) federate/ I jested 
£)u fefyeqteft/ thou jestedst 

@r fcrjerjte/ he jested 

SBSir fd)er§ten; we jested 

3f)r fdjcrjtet/ you jested 

Sic fcfyeraten, they jested. 

Interrogatively. 
@d)er$te id) ? Did I jest ? 



Negatively. 
3d) frter^te ntdbt, I did not jest 
3)u fd)er§te(l ntdbt/ thou didst 

not jest 
<£r fdjerjte ntd&t/ he did not 

jest 
§B$fr fdjergten nid)t/ we did not 

jest 
Styr fdjerjtet nidfot/ you did not 

jest 
Sie fdierjten nid)t, they did not 

jest. 
Interrogatively and Negatively. 
(gd)er$te id) ntdjt ? Did I not 
jest? 
Sd)er$teftbu? Didst thou jest? (Sd)er§teft bu ntd)t ? Didstthou 

not jest? 
Sdjerste er ? Did he jest ? S*ergte er nid)t ? Did he not 

not jest? 
©djerjten n?tr ? Did we jest ? Sd)er§ten rotr rtidjt ? Did you 

not jest ? 
Sd)er§tet tyx ? Did you jest ? ©djjergtet tt)r ntdjt ? Did you 

not jest ? 
Sd)er$ten fte ? Did they jest ? ©cr.erjten fte ntd)t ? Did they 

not jest ? 



47 



Future 
Affirmatively. 
3d) roerbe fd)ergen/ I shall or 

will jest 
£)u nrirfi fd^crjen/ thou shalt or 

wilt jest 
(Sr nritb fdjcrgen/ he shall or 

will jest 
SQSir roerben fcfyersetv we shall 

or will jest 
3*)t roerbet fdjer^en/ you shall 

or will jest 
(Sie roerben fcber jen/ they shall 
or will jest. 



Tense. 

Negatively. 
3d) werbe nidjt fdjergen, 1 shall 

or will not jest 
5)u nrirji nid)t fd)er$en/ thou 

shalt or wilt not jest 
<Sr ttrirb nid)t fct)er$en, he shall 

or will not jest 
SBtr merben mcf)t (emergen, we 

shall or will not jest 
3^ n?erb€t ntdfjt fdjerjen/ you 

shall or will not jest 
@te roerben xiidjt (emergen, they 

shall or will not jest 



Interrogatively. 
SBerbe id) fcfcerjen ? Shalll jest? 

SBtrft bu fd&erjen ? Wilt thou 

jest? 
28itb er fd)ergcn ? Will he jest ? 

Sfiktben roir fcfjerjen ? Shall we 

jest? 
SBerbct ifyr fdjcr $en ? Will you 

jest? 
SBerben fte fdjerjen ? Will they 

jest ? 



Interrogatively and Negatively. 
SSerbe id) nidfjt fdjer^en ? Shall 

I not jest ? 
SBirjl bu md)t fcfcerjen ? Wilt 

thou not jest ? 
SStrb er nidftt fdjeqen ? Will 

he not jest ? 
SBerben wit nid&t frf)er§en ? Shall 

we not jest ? 
SBerbet ttyr mrf)t fcfyergen ? Will 

you not jest? 
SSerben ftc nidfjt fdjerjen ? Will 

they not jest? 



Compound Forms of the Future Tense. 



Affirmatively. 
3$ roetbe gefd)er§t fytbenj shall 
or will have jested 



Negatively. 
3d) roerbe nicfyt gef^ergt fyabtn, 1 
shall or will not have jested 



48 



£)u fctntft gefd^r^t ^abcri/ thou 
shalt or wilt have jested 

Qti nnrb gefd)eqt tyaben/he shall 

or will have jested 
2£tr werben gefd^er^t fyaben, we 

shall or will have jested 

3t)r rcerbet gefierjt taben, you 
shall or will have jested 

<Ste roerben ge[d)er$t *)aben/ they 
shall or will have jested. 



£)u wtrffc ntd)t gefd)ergt f)aben, 

thou shalt or wilt not have 

jested 
(5r roirb nid)t gefdjer^t fjabeti/ he 

shall or will not have jested 
2$tt roerben ntdjt gefd)er$t t)aben/ 

we shall or will not have 

jested 
3§r werbet md)t gcfdjerat fyiben, 

you shall or will not have 

jested 
(£ie it>evben nid)t gefd&erjt fyctben, 

they shall or will not have 

jested. 



Interrogatively. 
SSSerbe id) gefcrjergt fyaben ? 
Shall, or will I have jested? 

SBir(^ bu 9efd;et$f tyaben ? Shalt, 
or wilt thou have jested ? 

&Mi*b er gefdieqt ijaben ? Shall, 
or will he have jested ? 

SSerben xoxx gefd)er§t fyaben ? 

Shall, or will we have 

jested ? 

SSerbet tt)r gefd;erat Ijaben? 

Shall, or will you have 

jested ? 

SBerben fte gefd^ergt fyt&en? 

Shall, or will they have 

jested ? 



Interrogatively and Negatively. 
SBSerbe tcb ntdbt gefdrjerst tyabert ? 

Shall, or will I not have 

jested ? 
SBStrft bu ntdjt gefcbergt fyaben ? 

Shalt, or wilt thou not have 

jested? 
2Btrb er nidjt geftfjerjt fyaben ? 

Shall, or will he not have 

jested ? 
£Berbenttrit md)t gcfdjergt fyaben? 

Shall, or will we not have 

jested ? 
SBetbet u)r. ntcfet gcfdjergt fyaben? 

Shall, or will you not have 

jested? 
SSerben fte ntd)t gefd>cr^t fyaben ? 

Shall, or will they nothave 

jested? 



49 



Compound Forms of the Present Tense. 



Affirmatively. 
3d) t)abe gefefyerjt, I have jested 

£)u fyafl Qefdjergt, thou hast 

jested 
(gr fyat gefdjergt/ he has jested 

fBtt tjabcn gcfd)er§t/ we have 

jested 
Sfyt ^obet gefdjecjt, you have 

jested 
©ie fyctben gefdjerjt/ they have 

jested. 



Negatively. 
3d) fyabe ntdftt gefdjergt, I have 

not jested 
£)u fyaft ntd)t gefdjer^t/thou hast 

not jested 
(Sr. f)at ntd)t Qefdjergt/ he has 

not jested 
28tr fyaben md)t gefd)er§t, we 

have not jested 
3t)r fyabet md)t gefdjergt, you 

have not jested 
<5ie tyaben md)t gefd^er^t, they 

have not jested. 



The student who has gone regularly through the pre- 
ceding parts of this work will now be able, without any 
further instruction, to write and speak the compound forms 
of the above and of any other verb in the German language. 



CHAPTER III. 

THEORY OF GERMAN CONSTRUCTION, AND 
PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF IT. 

1. In the German language, the three essential parts of 
any proposition, that is to say, the subject, the copula, and 
the attribute, may be arranged in four different ways. In 
what is generally termed the natural or direct order of con- 
struction, the subject precedes the copula or verb, and the 
attribute immediately follows the copula. In the inverted 
order, the attribute may precede, and the subject follow 
the copula ; or, the copula may precede the subject, followed 



50 

by the attribute ; or, lastly, the subject may precede, and 
the copula follow the attribute. 

Examples. 

3Retn SSruber fdjretbt etnen SSrief 5 etnen SSrief fdjreibt mete 
HBruber; [cr-retbr mein SBruber cincn SBrief? STceir. SSruber etnen 
SSrief fdpetbt* my brother is writing a letter. 

2. Adjectives, and participles, considered as adjectives, 

are in German, as in English, placed before the substan- 
tives which they qualify; and when there is an adjective, 
or a participle, with any words that depend on either, such 
words are placed before the adjective or participle, but after 
the article or pronoun. In this case, the article or pronoun 
occupies the first place : the words which depend on the 
adjective or participle, the second ; the adjective or parti- 
ciple itself, the third ; and the substantive, modified by the 
adjective or participle, the fourth. 
Example. 

Sin cjeaen jebermann Ircfltcrcr 5ftenfd), a man polite to every 
body. 

3. A genitive case, governed by a substantive, or an ad- 
jective, with the article bcr, tie/ tas/ may be placed indiffer- 
ently before or after the substantive by which it is governed: 

Examples. 

£er ©arlen be€ teniae, or beg SC&nigl ©arter,/ the garden of 
the king, or the king's garden ; tie S3csr;ett ter 9Xen(d)enj or 

ter Sftenfcr-ert SBceireit/ the wickedness of men, or men's 
wickedness. 

4. A proper name, in the genitive case, is almost invari- 
ably placed before the governing' noun : as, @ellert€ gabeln, 
Gellert's Fables ; £lo$fio£€ 9Reffta§j Klopstock's Messiah. 

5. The verb in the infinitive mood, and the past partici- 
ple, are placed at the end of their own member of the sen- 
tence, that is to say, after all the words which depend on 
them. 



51 

Examples. 

Gstnem fttefyenben geinbe etru golbene SSvucfe bauen, to build a 
golden bridge for a flying enemy ; roir mrtzn morgen nact) 
23erltn geben; we shall go to Berlin to-morrow ; ©te §ahz\\ 
etne ©elegenfeeit gute SSud)er gu fauferi/ you have an opportunity 
to buy good books ; fetn 23ruber feat bem £6ntg jwangtQ Safeve 
gebient, his brother has served the king twenty years. 

6. When a word that depends on an infinitive is explained 
or determined by an incidental proposition, such proposition 
may be placed either before or after the infinitive. 

Examples. 

(5tnen (Stnnmrf ma&vn, ber ntdjt gegtunbet v~x, or einen (Stnamrf/ 
bee md)t gegtunbet tft, macfyeti/ to make an unfounded objection. 
(Stnen sBrtef fd)retben^ ben 9?iemanb lefen !ann/ or einen 23rief, 
ben ?Riemanb lefen fanm fcfytetben./ to write a letter which 
nobody can read. (Stnen gcinb gu uberfallem ber nidit auf feiner 
£ut tjr, or etnen getnb/ ber md)t auf feiner #ut tjr/ gu uberfallen; 
to surprise an enemy who is not on his guard. (Sine (5rfld= 
rung gu geben, Me bunfler tjl/ al§ tie ju erfldrenbe (Sacfre, or eine 
(Srfldrung/ Me bunfler tft alS Me gu erfldrenbe ©acfce/ gu geben/ 
to give a definition which is more obscure than the thing to 
be defined. 

7. When two or more infinitives, or participles, depend 
on each other, that which is the first in English must be put 
last in German. 

Examples. 

©efeen xvo\Ur\, to wish to go. Scfcreifcen tonnem to be able 
to write, ©efdhrteben gu fyaben/ to have written, ©pagteren 
gefyen fonnen, to be able to go to walk. 3d) rcerbe md)t auS? 
gefyen fonnen, I shall not be able to go out. 

8. The verbs ftaben and fetn are often understood after a 
participle, and, when several verbs or participles occur in 
the same sentence, the auxiliary verb is not repeated, but is 
placed alone at the end of the sentence. 

Examples. 
SSSetdjeS er md)t Mo§ gefagt, fonbern audf) gefefcriebem f)at, which 



52 

he has not only said, but also written. ©d)&nf)etten, 5te ntd)t 
$u befd)retben, fonbcrn nut §u fufyten, finb, beauties which are not 
to be described, but only to be felt. 

9. £)utfen, fonnen, laffen/ m6gen, muffen, fotten, roerben, roollen, 
and all verbs in general, the principal use of which is to 
limit the tenses and moods of other verbs, govern the infi- 
nitive. 

Examples, 

9tt<f)t tfyun butfen, not to have permission to do. 9ttd)t 
fd)lafen lonnen, not to be able to sleep, ©id) madjen taffen, to 
have, or to get made, (gr mag fagen, maS er tt>ill, er muf? 
fommen, he may say what he likes, but he must come. (5t 
toollte 9ftd)t$ tfyun, fie fytegen tyn btnben, he would do nothing, 
they ordered him to be bound. 3d) fjalf tt)m arbetten, 1 helped 
him to work, (gr f)6rre mid) reben, he heard me talking. 
<3ie lefyrte tyn fdjretben/ she taught him how to write. 3d) \af) 
fie fommen, I saw them come, ©te fufylte t^re ^rdfte abnefymen, 
she felt her strength decrease, ©ie fanben tt)n fd)lafen, they 
found him asleep. 2Btt fanben fte auf ber (£rbe liegen, we found 
them lying on the ground. 

10. $eif$en, f)elfen, 5)6ren, fef)en, and the other verbs illus- 
trated in the foregoing examples, butfen, I onnen, laffen, mogen, 
muffen, and follen, governing another verb, cannot be used in 
the participle, but must always remain in the infinitive 
mood ; the verbs Ictjren and lernen, however, may be used 
with equal propriety in the participle and infinitive. 

Examples. 
3d) §aU ii)n fommen fyetjjen (not gefyeijien), I have ordered 
him to come. 3d) ^abe tfym fdjretben tjelfen (not geljolfen), 
I have helped him to write. 3d) fyabt ttjn fpred)en ()6ren 
(not gel)6rt), I have heard him speak. 3d) tyabz tyn mafylen 
fetjen, I have seen him paint. 8te fatten auf mein fSSort trauen 
butfen, you might have relied upon my word. 3d) fyabe tfym 
mad)en laffen, I have had, or got made for him. 3d) tyabt tfui 
nid)t fe^en roollen, I would not see him. (St tyat gefyen muffen, 
he has been obliged to go. 3d) fyabe ifyn fpred)en lefcren, I 
have taught hirn how to speak. @t f)at fie fennen gelernt, or 
er fyat fte fennen lernen, he has become acquainted with her, 



53 

ii. The German infinitive is usually preceded by the 
preposition §u, when it simply expresses the object of an ac- 
tion ; and, when it more particularly denotes the aim and 
intention of an action, in addition to the above preposition, 
it requires the particle urn, which is always separated from 
$u by the case of the verb that is put in the infinitive mood. 
Urn/ in this situation, is equivalent to the English words, in 
order to, for the purpose of, to the end that, &c. &c. 
Examples. 

dv be^auptete tfyn gefefyen ju fyaben/ he asserted that he had 
seen him. 3d) trad&rete mit ifym §u fpred)en/ I endeavoured to 
speak to him. @r tjt- berett/ eg &u tfyun, he is ready to do it. 
<5t tfyat fetn 9ft6gUd)fteg/ urn tfyn $u uberreben, he did all that he 
could in order to persuade him. G*;r serfdumte 9tid)tg, urn eg 
3tt erlcmgeri/ he neglected nothing in order to accomplish it. 

12. 2Cnf(agen/ befcfyuibtgen, enttaben/ entlebigert/ uberfufyteti/ 
beraubeti/ uberfyeben/ uber 5 eugen/ oerftc^ern/ erwdfynen, gebenfem 
fd)onen/ Eertpetfen/ and many reciprocal verbs, govern the 
genitive case. 

- Examples, 

(£t ift eineg SSerbtedieng befcfyulbigt, he is accused of a crime, 
(St i|r feineg 5Serfpred)en6 entlebtgt/ he is absolved from his pro- 
mise. Gsr erinnert fid) ber empfangenen SSofyltfyaten, he remem- 
bers the kindness he has received. Q,t entfy&tt ftch biefer &ad)e f 
he abstains from this thing. (Sr. bemdd)tigte fid) bee (Stabt/ he 
made himself master of the town. 

13. Verbs which govern the relation of time, place, and 
manner, require the genitive case. 

Examples, 

©eg Sftlorgeng/ be§ 9tad)tg, be§ SBormittagg/ beg Sagg, beg (Sonn^ 
ragg/ beg SDftontagg/ ycozimai bt§ Safyreg fommen, to come in the 
morning, in the night, in the forenoon, during the day, on 
Sunday, on Monday, twice a year, ©eg 9Jtorgeng ober beg 
2Cbenbg abretfen/ to set out in the morning or evening, ©eg 
23ormtttagg fd)retberi/ beg ^ad)mtttagg fpajteren gefyeri/ to write in 
the forenoon, to take a walk after dinner. dv mirb beg 
9?ad)tg anfommen, he will arrive in the night. (Sonntagg unb 

f 3 



54 

9ttontag6 get)t bte ^offc ab, the post goes on Sundays and Mon- 
days. (Sr fommt jwetmal beg SQtonatg, jweimal beg 3at)reg/ he 
comes twice a month, twice a year. 

14. In general, adverbs are placed immediately before 
the word the signification of which they modify. 

Examples. 

(Sin 9 r u n b 1 1 d) gele^tter. Warm, & profoundly learned 
man. Unenbltd) gut, infinitely good. 

15. With finite verbs, the adverb nid)t is usually placed 
at the end of the sentence ; but when there is a participle 
or a verb in the infinitive mood, nid)t is put before such 
participle or infinitive. 

Examples. 

3d) faf) tf)n biefen garden Sag nid)t, or ify ^aht tt)n ben ganjen 
Sag ntd)t gefefyen/ I have not seen him the whole day. 3d) 
fcnnte tfyn mcfyt i)5rcn/ I could not hear him. 

16. When a negative and an adverb of time occur in the 
same sentence, the latter is generally put before the former. 
But when the temporal adverb is affected by the negative, 
the adverb of negation is placed before the adverb of time. 

Examples. 
3$ fcbretbe tjeute nid)t, I do not write to-day. (Sr ttrirb nid)t 
morgen/ fonbern ubermorgen/ tommen, he will not come to- 
morrow, but the day after to morrow. 

17. All the cases governed by the verb are put after it 
in the simple tenses, and between the auxiliary and the par- 
ticiple in the compound tenses. 

Examples. 

©ie fet)en mi§, you see me. (Sr gab eg tym, he gave it to 
him. <Ste t)aben mid) gefefyen, you have seen me. <£v fyatte eg 
tbm gegeben/ he had given it to him. 

18. When both a dative and accusative case follow the 
verb, the dative usually precedes the accusative except for 
the sake of emphasis, &c. 



55 

Examples. 

@r gtbr fctnem gceunbc 9tafy he gives his friend advice. 
(5r fdhricb einen SSricf (etnem ^Bcuber/ he wrote a letter to his 
brother. 

19. When one of the two cases is a personal pronoun, it 
is usually placed immediately after the verb, and when both 
the cases are personal pronouns, the accusative generally 
precedes the dative. 

Examples, 

£)er (Sinfiebfer fc|tc tynen glcif^ unb S&ein ^or, the hermit 
set meat and wine before them, ©ie wanbten jtdj jebem met'&= 
iDutbtgen ©egenftanbe git/ they turned aside to every thing 
remarkable, ©te unter'nteiten ftd) mtt ben (Simrcfynern, they 
conversed with the inhabitants, ©ic gibt eg tfmi/ she gives it 
to him. (5 1* nannte fie mtr/ he named her to me. 

20. The principal case of the verb is followed by the pre- 
position and the substantive which it governs. 

Examples. 

£)te§ macrte einen tiefen (Stnbrucf auf unfere Binnet this made a 
deep impression on our senses. SKetn QSefjIjranb fe|t metn 
Seben in ©efafyt/ my prosperity puts my life in danger. 3<3) 
babe funfge^n 3abre in ber ginfamfeit gelebt, I have lived fifteen 
years in solitude. 

21. The circumstances of //me and ^face precede the 
principal case of the verb, except when the case of the verb 
is a pronoun, and then the pronoun is placed immediately 
after the verb. 

Examples. 

dx fdfcitfte oorgejtern ba$ ©elb fetnem gteunbe, he sent the 
money to his friend the day before yesterday. 3* fanb tfyn 
ccrgefrevn in 3Bien< I found him in Vienna the day before 
yesterday. 

22. The separable particles of compound verbs, past 
participles, and verbs, in the infinitive mood, are placed at 
the end of the sentence. 



56 

Examples. 

(SS fiel tt)m auf etnmal feine SRebe etn, he remembered his 
discourse at once. Set Umgang mit aufgeflarten Seuten fyat 
fetnen ©etji sur Sfteife gebradbt, intercourse with enlightened 
persons has matured his understanding. 3d) fat) tie fd)tt>ar§e 
©cwittcrtoolfe fcfynetl uber ben SBSalb fatjren, I saw the black 
storm-cloud pass swiftly over the wood. 3* bin berett, eud) 
§u erlennen §u geben, 1 am prepared to let you know. 

23. Conjunctions are usually placed at the beginning of 
that member of a sentence which they connect ; but aber, 
alfo/ aud), bafyer, bemnad), barum/ bennod), folgltd)/ befm>egen, 
jebod), mit^tti, fonjf, and §war, are often placed at the distance 
of several words from the beginning of the sentence. 

24. The conjunctions obgletd) and obroofyt may be either 
separated or not ; roenn nur and roenn aud) are often separated 
by a pronoun in the nominative case. 

Examples. 

£>bgleid) td) e§ roeifj $ ob id& eg gtetd) mdjt wetj* ; obtpo^l i<§ tf)n 
f enne 5 ob er mir gleid) befannt ifl: 5 roenn er nur roollte 5 u>enn et 
aud) retd) t|r. 

25. German prepositions are usually placed before the 
case which they govern ; but fyalben, fyalber, ungead)tet, junriber, 
entgegen, fytnburd), lang, gufolge, written (preceded by urn)/ nad), 
and a few others are placed after their regimen. Ueber, in 
the sense of lang, is placed after the case which it governs. 
Sufolge, with a genitive case, precedes, but with a dative it 
follows the word which it governs. 

26. 2Cnftatt, ftatt, tjalben/ tyalber, aufjerfyalb, innerfyatb, ober^ 
fyalb, untcr^alb/ fvaft, laut, mtttelji, cermitteljl, ungead)tet, unrceit, 
unfern, oerm6gc, rcafyrenb, tregen, and tvo§, govern the genitive 
case, and when fyalben or wegen is joined to a personal pro- 
noun, a t is added to it. 

27. 2Cu$/ auger, bet, entgegen, mit, nad), n&d&ji, nebji, IdngS, 
fammt, feit, con, jur, and gutxriber, govern the dative. 

28. £>urd), fur, gegen, urn, and rotber, govern the accusative 
case. 



29. n dn f auf, fetnter/ in, neben, uber, ocr/ unter/ and 5ttifd)en, 
govern the dative and accusative cases. 

30. These prepositions govern the dative case, when the 
sense points out a state of rest in a place, and also when the 
verb indicates motion within a given or determined space, 
without going from one place to another. When the verb 
expresses motion from one place to another, or a certain 
tendency towards any object, these prepositions govern the 
accusative. S3or is often used when the verb expresses or 
implies the idea of fear, defence, protection, or flight. 

Examples. 

(£t furd)tet ftd) eoe ©efpenftern/ he is afraid of ghosts. (&k 
fdyjgt ftd) i>cr ber &&lte# she protects herself against the cold. 
(Sr fltef)t cot bem getnbe, he flies before the enemy. 

31. The compound prepositions, umber/ untermeg/ uber= 
wcg# conauS, Donan* oonauf/ anftatt, oont)er, auf$U/ nadfou, auflcS/ 
sorter/ sorbin/ ocrrceg/ t)inrerr;er/ ^intenbretn, umrotlten/ are sepa- 
rated in such a manner that their regimen, or the case which 
they govern, is placed in the middle, between their component 
parts. 

Examples. 

(Sie ftunben u m ben -ISagen f) e x, they stood round the 
waggon. £)aS gaffer lauft unter ber IBrucEc meg, the water 
runs under the bridge. g)te £uget gtng uber metnem £cpf 
m e g/ the ball went over my head. Q;r r^at mir Don -Bien 
aug gefdjrteben, he has written to me from Vienna, (Sr tarn 
oon ber (Stabt f) e r# he came from the side of the town. 
2Bir fegeiten a u f Stalten 5 u, we were sailing towards Italy. 
5aBr uns a u f it)n loi ge^en, let us go up to him. Qt lief r 
mir r; e r (f)in)/ he was running before me. ©ott ftraft tie 
9Renfd)en u m ttjrer ^unben mitten/ God punishes men for 
their sins. 

32. Some conjunctions are always placed at the beginning 
of the sentence ; of this kind are alletiv fonbern/ benn, mil, 
[internal/ nad)bem, \e mtyv, je mentger/ menn, ate ob, obgletd^ cb? 
fcfcom obmofyl/ ob^xvat, tvk, and gtetcfcmie. 

33. The conjunction ba$ is often suppressed after the 



58 

verbs rcunfd)en, molten, fyoffen, fuud)ten, beforgen^ t>erftd)em, be* 
fyaupten, and jagen, without inverting the order of the words 
in consequence of the suppression. 
Examples. 

3d) tt?unfd)te/ or roollte, ec lame (for, bajTer lame), I wish that 
he would come, &c. 

34. The conjunction rcemt may be either expressed or 
not ; but, when it is suppressed, the order of the words is 
inverted. 

Examples* 

2Berm er mill, or wilt er, if be will. 2Benn id) e§ gerougt tyStte, 
or fyatte id) eg gewugf/ if I had known it. £Benn icf> ntd)t lomme, 
or lomme id) nid)t, if I do not come. 

35. There is a necessary correlation between certain con- 
junctions, so that when the first part of a sentence, or the 
antecedent, begins with one, the second part, or the conse' 
quent, begins with its correlative. 

Examples. 

@nftt>eber fyat er eg getfyan, obet er ttrirb eg nod) tf)un, 
either he has done it, or he will do it. £>b er gle id) metn 
better tjt, f o fommt er bod) ntcfct ju mtr, although he is my 
cousin, yet he does not come near me. Scnn @te wieber 
fommen/ fo milt id) eg Sfynen geben, when you return, I will give 
it you. 28enn i§ gletd) @etb fyattt, fo gabe id) tfym bod) 
letneg, even if I had money, I would give him none. 3d) 
fenne to e b e r feinen SSater, n o d) fetne Gutter, I neither know 
his father nor his mother. <So fd)6n fte aud) fein mag, fo tjt 
fie bod) md)t liebengrcurbtg, however handsome she may be, 
still she is not amiable, (gr tjt itvat metn getnb nid)t, a b e r 
aud) ntd)t metn greunb, ne is indeed not my enemy, but still 
he is not my friend. 

36. The conjunction fo, which is often used to connect 
the antecedent and consequent, may be suppressed, and the 
best writers make but a sparing use of it. (So bod) is always 
separated, so that the verb and the nominative case, and also 
sometimes a part of the regimen are found in the middle, 



59 

between the component parts, which is evident by several 
of the above examples. 

Having said so much in explanation and exemplification 
of the rules which are common to the several orders of 
German construction in general, the reader is now prepared 
for the consideration of those rules which belong to each 
order in particular. 

37. That order of construction of sentences, requiring 
the especial attention of beginners, is the natural or direct, 
in which the subject of the proposition occupies the first 
place, the copula the second, and the predicate, or attribute, 
the third. The rules for the collocation of words in sen- 
tences of this order, are these: first, the conjunction, if 
there is one of those which begin sentences ; second, the 
subject or nominative case, with its modification or acces- 
saries, that is to say, every thing that serves to explain or 
determine it, whether this be an adjective, a participle, a 
pronoun joined to a sentence, or an incidental proposition, 
&c. Then comes the copula, or verb of the nominative 
case ; and, in the fourth or last place, the attribute or regi- 
men ; that is to say, all the words which serve to determine 
the signification of the verb. The regimen, therefore, will 
be found to comprehend the case of the verb, or the direct 
regimen ; the preposition with its case, or the indirect regi- 
men ; the adverb, the demonstrative particle, and the 
separable preposition or component part of the verb. 

38. In simple tenses there is no difficulty whatever. This 
will appear evident by a few examples : — £er SEenfdj if: 
fterbltd)/ man is mortal. 3& fefje etnert SBlarni/ I see a man. 
3d* fef)e metne SBudjer/ I see my books. 3d) fagte fetnem SSruber, 
I was saying to his brother. (Sr gefyt nad) Berlin/ he is going 
to Berlin, ©ein SBruber trotjnt bei metnem grcunbc/ his brother 
lives at my friend's. (Seine SBudber liegen auf tern &ifd)e, his 
books are lying on the table. (gr fdfcreibt leferlicfy he writes 
legibly, ^ie rebet tmmer, she is always talking. 3d) [er,e 
barauS/ I see therefrom Bit effen baoori/they are eating some 



60 

of it. <5r fcfyreibt ah, he is copying, ©ie fommen jurucf/ they 
are coming back. 

In the first of these simple sentences, we have subject, 
verb, and attribute ; in the second and third, subject, verb, 
and direct regimen ; in the fourth, subject, verb, and indi- 
rect regimen ; in the fifth, sixth, and seventh, subject, 
verb, and preposition, with its case ; in the eighth and ninth, 
subject, verb, and adverb; in the tenth and eleventh, sub- 
ject, verb, and demonstrative particle ; and in the twelfth 
and thirteenth, subject, verb, and separable preposition. 

39. When there is a concurrence of regimens in the pro- 
position or sentence, the personal pronouns, in regimen, are 
put immediately after the verb of the subject or nominative 
case, and. consequently, before all the other words which 
depend on that verb. 

Examples. 
3d) fenne ifyn feit langer 3eit/ I have known him a longtime. 
SQlein SBruber fdjreibt mir atlemal fefyr lange SBriefe/ my brother 
always writes me very long letters. 3d) mfinfdjc Sfynen etnen 
guten SCftorgen, I wish you a good morning. (Sr befcbrour mid) 
bet unferer greunbfftaft, he conjured me by our friendship. 
9Jtetne ©deeper beftnbet ftd) md)t fet?r root)!/ my sister is not 
very well. 

40. Adverbs of time, and all expressions which denote 
time, as well as adverbs of negation, are usually placed after 
the personal pronouns, if there are any, and before the other 
words which depend on the same verb, observing to make 
adverbs of time precede adverbs of negation ; adverbs of 
quality, quantity, and others, are sometimes placed before, 
and sometimes after, the direct and indirect regimen. 

Examples. 
3d) gefye fyeute md)t nad) £onbom I do not go to London to- 
day. S)te (Srnbte iffc fyeuer ntd)t fo gut/ ol§ ba§ sorige %cfyx, the 
harvest is not so good this year as it was the last, ©te 
gtngen eittgft in ba§ £au£/ they went hastily into the house. 
(§r fd)reibt alle feine SSriefe giertid), he writes all his letters 
elegantly. 



61 

41. When the personal pronoun depends on a preposi- 
tion, it is usually placed after the adverbs of time and nega- 
tion : as, er fommt l;eute ntd)t 5U mtr# he does not come to me 
to-day. 

42. After personal pronouns and adverbs of time and 
negation, follow the direct and indirect regimens, nearly in 
the same order as in English, with their modifications. 

Examples* 
Qt befednbtgte mir geftern etn 23ud) nebft etnem S3rtefe/ he de- 
livered to me yesterday a book, together with a letter, din 
CSroe wurbtgte einen brolltcfyten £afen fetner ndfeern Sefcmmi'diafr, 
a lion honoured a droll hare with his familiarity. Gnn ge* 
fragtgeg ©djroetn maftete feet) unter einer ^>ol)en (£t#e mtt ber feerabs 
gefallenen grud)t, a voracious pig was fattening itself under a 
tall oak with the acorns which fell from it. SOMn SBrubcr 
certaufd)t bag Heine olte ^Pferb, rcetdeS er son Sfenen aefauft fear, 
gegen etn gr&fereg, ba$ nur fed)6 Safer alt tjr, my brother ex- 
changes the little old horse which he bought of you, for a 
bigger, that is but six years old. 

43. In placing several regimens which concur to modify 
the signification of the same verb, it is of less importance 
to consult the brevity or length of each regimen in par- 
ticular, than the nearer or more remote connection which it 
may have with the verb ; and, in general, that which bears 
more immediately upon the signification of the verb, is, like 
the separable component particles or prepositions, placed 

the last. 

Examples. 

£)te £)iebe beaten gemetntgltd) tie ©liter/ roelcbe fte ttjrem 
SKddbjfen entttenben/ mit ttyrem £eben, thieves commonly forfeit 
their lives for the property which they take from their 
fellow-creatures. £>er ilontg fcHtfte alien fetnen ©efanbten an 
auSrcarttgen £6fen S3efer)l %\x, the king sent orders to all his 
ambassadors at foreign courts. 9Tcan muf tie attfen ©elegen= 
ijetten ntcf)t au£ ben £anben laffen, we ought not to let good 
opportunities go by unimproved. 

44. Incidental sentences are, for the most part, placed 
immediately after the word which they explain or modify ; 

G 



62 

but when the verb of the principal sentence is in a com- 
pound tense, the incidental sentence mav be placed indiffer- 
ently before or after the participle or infinitive, which forms 
a part of the compound tense. 

Examples. 

3d) §abe ba$ IBudv reel ere* <&h mit gelierjen r;aben, gelefen, or 
id) fcabe fca3 £Bud) gelefen, roeldjeS ©te mir geliefeen $aben/ I have 
read the book which you lent me. 3d) roerbe meinen ©arten# 
tt>etd)er tn ber &5orfiabt itegt, rerfaufen/ or id) rccrbe meinen ©arten 
oecfaufcn/ welder in ber S$orfiabt liegt, I will sell my garden in 
the suburb. 

45. What has just been said respecting incidental sen- 
tences is equally applicable to propositions, in which, in- 
stead of a complete incidental sentence, there is either a 
present participle, or what, a compound relative pronoun, 
for that which, in German, ba& rcaS. 

Examples. 

I wished to take advantage of the opportunity for buying 
good books, id) ruottte mir tie ©elegenfjeit/ gute SBudjer gu faufen/ 
&u 9£u£en madjeni or tcb wollte mir tie ©elegenfyett ^u 3^u£en 
macfen/ gute 33ud)er gu taufen. The marshal, upon hearing 
that the enemy was not more than two leagues off, gave 
orders to his whole army, auf tie Sftad)rtd)t, ba$ ber geinb nur 
nod) gnxi ©tunben entfernt rcare,* gab ber ^err ^arfdiall b^m 
gangen ^)cere SSefe^l/ or ber jperr 35£arfd)aU/ auf tie SKacfcrtd)!, 
ba% ter gctnb nur nod) greet ©tunben entfernt wire/ gab bem gangen 
£eere SSefet)l. The general had scarcely given orders for 
the attack, ber (general batte faum ben SBefefyl angugreifen gege^ 
bin, or ber ©eneral t)atte faum ben &3efet)i gegebem angugreifen. 
I saw, with my own eyes, what happened, id) fyabz ba$ t tva$ 
gefd)el;en ift, mix meinen etgenen 2Cugen gefefyen/ or id) fyabe ba$ 
mit meinen etgenen 2Cugen gefefyeri/ roaS gefd)el)en tfr. He will not 
confess to what you accuse him of, er urirb ba$ f roeffen ©te 
tl)n befebuibtgen/ ntcr^r gefieten, or er rotrb bag ntd)t gejlefyen/ n?effen 
©te tt)n befcr.ulbtgen. He was ashamed to tell me what I 
already knew, er fduimte fid)/ mir ba§, traS id) febon roufjte/ gu 
fogen/ or er fctcmre fid> mir ba§ gu fagen/ rcaS i& : fdbon tt>u£te. 

46. When there is, in English, between the nominative 



63 

case and its verb, either a principal sentence, or a verb in 
the infinitive mood, governed by a preposition, the sentence 
is usually begun with a conjunction or conjunctional ex- 
pression. 

Examples. 
The general, having heard that the enemy was retreating, 
ordered the general march to be beaten, nadjbem ber gelbfyerr 
erfafyren tjatu, bap ber geinb fid) aurud^og, Itejj er ben @eneral= 
marfd) fdrtagen. The commandant, after he had, during the 
night, made all the necessary preparations to attack the 
besiegers, ordered the whole of the garrison to go out of the 
town at daybreak, naftbem ber @ommanbant tie Sftad)t burd) alle 
n5t£)tgen 2Cnjralten Me SBelagerer anjugretfen gemad)t featte/ lief? er 
betm 2£nbrud)e beg Sageg tie gan^e SSefagung au$ ber <Stabt rucfen. 

47. The demonstrative participles bason/ &c, as well as 
the adverbs bat bafctbft/ allba/ §ut/ bar;in/ fyier* and tyiefyer/ are 
usually placed after the regimens. 

Examples, 
For the last fortnight every body has been talking of it 
with great confidence, Sebermann rebet/ feit mer§et)n Sagen, mit 
oteler ftoerl&jngf eit baoon. I am not a little astonished at it, 
id) oerrounbere mid) ntdjt rcentg baruber. Fortunately we arrived 
there at last, after a tedious journey, toiv gelangten enblid) nad) 
etner befdhroerlicfcen Sftetfe glucfltd) bafyin. Your brother was 
already there with his wife, Sfyt SBruber xvaz mit feincr grau 
fd)on ba. 

48. Separable prepositions, commonly called the " separ- 
able component particles of compound verbs," are placed 
after the regimens and demonstrative particles. 

Examples. 
He brought (took) two of his friends thither with him, 
er bradtfe gi&een son fetnen guren greunben bat)tn mit. He got a 
deal of his money by cheating, er gercann i§m burd) fetne S3es 
trugereien oiei ©elb ab. 

49. The infinitive mood, separable prepositions, and past 
participles, are placed at the end of their own member of 
the sentence. 



64 

Examples. 

My friend will return from Germany to-morrow, and 
bring me two horses with him, metn greunb roirb morgen au$ 
£eutfcfclanb §urucffommen, unb roirb mtr gvoet ^>ferbe mitbrtngen. 
He did not copy more than a sheet and a half of it yester- 
day, er rjat geftern nidjt mefyr alg anbmfyatb S5ogcn baoon abge^ 
fdjrieben. 

50. In interrogative sentences the verb precedes its sub- 
ject or nominative case ; and the attribute is put in the third 
place. 

Examples. 

3ft er gefommen ? Is he come ? £at er fetne ttntmort gegeben ? 
Has he given no answer ? SBarum fyat er e$ nid)t ^efagt ? 
Why has he not said so ? 

51. The same collocation is observed when the conjunc- 
tion menn or the particle cb is omitted, and also when the sen- 
tence begins with an adverb of time or place, with one of the 
conjunctions entmeber, ober, &c, or with the pronoun e§/ &c. 

Examples, 
3ft fca€; was <Ste fagen ; mafyr (for m e n n ba$ f n>a§ ©ie fagen, 
matjr ift)/ fo ijoffe id)/ bajj atle§ gut gefyen merbe/ if what you say 
is true, I hope every thing will go on well. SSSill ir)r 23ruber 
md)t fcmmen (for menn 3 for. 23ruber mcbt fommen mill)/ fo mag 
er megbletben/ if your brother will not come, he may stay 
away. 3ft er gletd) nidjt metn greunb (for wcnn or o b er gletd) 
md)t metn greunb ift)/ fo gonne td) tt)m bod) nicfets SSofeS/ although 
he is not my friend, still I wish him no harm. @djl&gen trie 
oud) ben getnb (for m e n n mtr audb ben geinb fdjifigen)/ fo fonnten 
mtr ikn ntdjt t?erfolgen/ if we were to beat the enemy, still we 
should not be able to pursue him. (§6 gefdjar; etn grojjeS 
Unalud:, a great misfortune happened. 

The interrogative pronoun mer forms an exception to the 
foregoing rule, as : 2£er r)at ba$ getfyan? Who has done that? 

52. In propositions beginning with the particles \ti befto/ 
\xm, fo/ rote/ &c, the attribute occupies the first place^ the 
verb the second, and the subject the third. 



65 

Examples. 

3e &iter ber SBeim befto beffer tji er/ the older the wine the 
better it is. 2Sie tfyeuer tfr biefe £)ofe ? How dear is this box 
(for, what is the price of it) ? SSte grop iffc Sfyre ©ute ! How 
great is your kindness ! 

53. An affirmative sentence may begin with an infinitive, 
an adjective, an adverb, a participle, a relative or demon- 
strative pronoun, one of the relative particles roo/ n>o§tn/ n>o- 
fyx, xvobei, woburd)/ roofiir, n>oran, roorin/ or any of the transpo- 
sitive conjunctions alg, anerrcogen/ angefe^en, anflatt, big baf*/ 
ba/ bafern# bafyer, bamit, ba$ t auf/ efye, etje al6^ efje benn/ falls or 
im galle/ inbem/ inbefferi/ mafjem nacfybem, nun, ob/ obgleid)/ obfd)om 
obtvofy, obgnxtr/ fett, fettbem/ [internal/ roenn, fo aud> fo balb, fo 
lange, fo triel, fo wett or in fo weit, fo fern or in fo fern; fonft/ 
«>&fyrenb, roann, tt>arum/ rcaSmafien, n?eld)ermaf;en or tt)eld)ergej!alt, 
weil/ tDtnn aud), ttenn gleidv rcenn [d)on, n>enn nur, tsegrcegen, 
glettote, rote roentg, tmeroofyl/ roofern, roofern nur. When a 
sentence begins with any of the above words, the construc- 
tion of such sentence is inverted or not direct, inasmuch as 
the subject and attribute or regimen precede the verb of 
the nominative case. 



Practical Application of the Theory of 
German Construction. 

Rule. — When there is an adjective, or a participle, with 
any words that depend on either, such words are placed 
before the adjective or participle, but after the article or 
pronoun. In this ease, the article or pronoun occupies the 
first place, the words depending on the adjective or parti- 
ciple the second, the adjective or participle itself the 
third, and the substantive, modified by the adjective or 
participle, the fourth. 

£)te Sftgmpfyen, mtt geflodfc The nymphs, with braided 
tenen £aaren unb roeif? gefletbet, hair, and dressed in white, 

g 3 



66 



rrugen fogtetd) etne einfadje, aber 
in ®efd)matf unb Steinlidjfett 
auSgefud)te SDftotyljeit auf. 

3ugleid^ fingen mer junge 
9tt)mpt)en an gu ffngen. ©rffes 
Urf) befangen fie ben $ampf ber 
(hotter gegen tie Sfttefen 5 bann 
bte StebeSabemeuec be§ 3upt=> 
ter unb ber @emete ; bie ©eburt 
be£ SBaccr-uS unb fetne burd) 
ben alten ©tten getettete (Sqies 
bung ; ben SBSettlauf ber Etalanta 
unb beg £tppomeneS, weldfjer 
oermitteljt ber golbenen/ tm 
Garten ber #efpertben gepftui3:= 
ten 2Cepfe( Sieger blteb. 

£)te £Hetd)tr;umer, reeldje fte 
burd) ben $anbel ertangt fatten/ 
unb bte (Stdrfe ber unubenrnnb^ 
itdjen im ?>Jteere gelegenen (Stabt 
SgruS §attc baS #er§ btefer 
SSblfer tro£tg gemacfet. 

^etjren <Ste, fufyr er fort, nad) 
St^ala $urucf$ melleid)t unrb 
Sfyr oon ben ©ottern geltebter 
Sater eben fo baib ba fein/ alS 
©te. 

£ier regterte ber au§ Sroja 
entroidjjene alte 2Ccejre6. 

(5tn fo unernxtrtefer Orfotg 
mad)te, baf man ben SQlentoralS 
einen son bm ©ottern geltebten 
unb begetfierten SCftann anfat). 

£)tefe meUetdjt unter bem 
ganjen 2CRenfd}enge[d)led)t i)err~ 
fcfyenbe SDfteinung t)ermod)te nur 
burd) SBabrfyett folcfce 2CUgemein* 
I}eit §u genrinnen; bcnn btejentgen, 
weldje nie con einanber gebjort 
§aben, fonnten ficfy nidjt in etne 



immediately brought in a 
plain repast, but exquisite 
both in taste and neatness. 

Then four young nymphs 
began to sing. First they 
sang the battle of the gods 
against the giants ; then the 
loves of Jupiter and Semele ; 
the birth of Bacchus, and his 
education, conducted by old 
Silenus ; the race of Atalanta 
with Hippomenes, who came 
off victorious by means of 
golden apples gathered in 
the garden of Hesperia. 

The riches they had ac- 
quired by trade, and the 
strength of the impregnable 
city of Tyre, situated in the 
sea, had puffed up the hearts 
of these people, 

Return to Ithaca, con- 
tinued he, perhaps your fa- 
ther, who is beloved of the 
gods, will be there as soon 
as you, 

Old Acestes, who had 
escaped from Troy, reigned 
there. 

Such unexpected success 
caused Mentor to be looked 
upon as a man favoured and 
inspired by the gods. 

This opinion, which per- 
haps prevails as far as human 
nature is diffused, could be- 
come universal only by its 
truth; for those that never 
heard of another would not 
have agreed in a tale which 



67 



nothing' but experience can 
make credible. 



&a$t c>eretmgen, bte altetn burd) 
Grrfafyrung ©laubtr-urbtgMt ju 
er^alten im (Stanbe mar. 

£)er Sufranb etner burd) un^ 
erirarteteg UnglutiE gebeugten 
<Seele, tjt gtetd) bem ber fabet^af* 
ten Sewofyner ber neuerfdjaffenen 
drbe, n?dd)e, aid bte SKad}t gum 
erften 5>JlaI iftren ©deleter entfal« 
tete/ gtaubten/ ba$ ber Sag nic 
nneber erfdjetnen rourbe. 

Rule.— All the cases governed by the verb are put after 
it, in the simple tenses, and between the auxiliary and the 
participle, in the compound tenses. 

Sellemad) fotgte ber ©Stttrni/ Telemachus followed the 
n?eld)e mit etnem #aufen junger goddess, who was encircled 



The state of a mind op- 
pressed with a sudden cala- 
mity, is like that of the 
fabulous inhabitants of the 
newly-created earth, who, 
when the first night came 
upon them, supposedthat day 
would never return. 



yiymytyn umgeben war, uber 
weldje fte etne ^opfldnge empor 
ragte, gleid) rote etne groge @td;c 
in etnem 28atbe ttjre butten 
3tt>etge uber alle anbre 23dume, 
tt>eld)e fte umgeben, empor tybt. 



@r berounberte ben ©lanj 
tfyrer ©d)6nt)eit/ ben retd)en 
^purpur tfyreS langen mallenben 
JUetbeS, i^jre nad)ldgtg/ aber mit 
©ra^te ^jinten aufgefnupften 
tbaare/ ba$ geuer, n>eld)eS au3 
ifyren 2Cugen jtrat)lte, unb bte 
©anftmutlj, tucldjc btefe Cebfjaf* 
itgfett nttlberte. 

3d) betrad)te btefen mddjttgen 
SBau al§ ein £)en£ma( ber Un* 
juldngltdjfeit menfd)lid)er ©es 
nufje. 

©te bereuten ir)re SBifjbegterbe, 
tabelten bte 9lad)tdfngfett ber 
SKegterung, beflagten ir;re Un= 



by a crowd of young" nymphs, 
among whom she was dis- 
tinguished by the superioritv 
of her stature, like the tower- 
ing summit of a lofty oak, 
seen, in the midst of a forest, 
above all the trees which 
surround it. 

He admired the splendour 
of her beauty, the rich pur- 
ple of her long flowing robe, 
her hair that was tied with 
graceful negligence behind 
her, and the vivacity and 
softness which were mingled 
in her eyes. 

I consider this mighty 
structure as a monument of 
the insufficiency of human 
enjoyments. 

They repented their cu- 
riosity, censured the negli- 
gence of the government, 



68 



befonnenfyeit/ weldje eS tterabs 
faumt fyatte fur etne SB3adf)e ju 
forgen/ barren ftd) mele tfug* 
funftSmittel burd) roeld)e ^e= 
^uat)6 Skrtuft fydtte t>orgebeugt 
roerben fSnneri/ unb befd)lojfen, 
bag fDtogltcfye fur beren SBieberers 
langung gu rtjun/ obwo^t !etner 
erroag SrcecfmdfngeS ausfinbtg 
madjen lonntc. 

£)er getgenbaum/ ber Delbaum/ 
ber ©ranatenbaum unb alle 
anbere SSdume bebecften bag 
£anb/ unb btlbeten einen grofien 
©arten baraug. 

@r benmnberte tie gute ^olijet 
btefer ©t&bte > bie ©ered)ttgtett/ 
roetdje sum SSeften beg ^rmen 
gegen ben SKetcfyen gefyanbrjabt 
nurb, bte gute (grstefyung ber 
&tnber/ tretd)e man §um ©efyors 
fam,§ur 2Crbett/ §ur tftuerjiernfyeit, 
5ur £tebe ber ^unfte unb SBiffen^ 
fd)afien geroSfynt; tie genaue 
33eobad)tung aller SHeltgion£ge= 
brdudje 5 bte Unetgennu^tgMt, 
bte (Sfyrbegterbe/ bte Sreue gegen 
bte SDlenfdjen unb bte gurd)t fur 
bte ©otter/ tt>eld)e jeber Qaufc 
sater fetnen $inbern etnflopt. 



^alppfo t)6rte mtt SSerroun* 
berung fo weifc SSorte. £BaS 
it>r am meijten gejtefyl/ xvat f ba$ 
Seiemad) offenfyerstg bte gefyier 
erjd^lte; tr-eicfye er auS Ueber= 
etlung begangen fyatte/ unb roett 
er nidjt folgfam gegen ben tueifen 
Mentor geir-efen n?ar. ©te fanb 
einen (Sbelfinn unb etne beroun* 



lamented their own rashness, 
which had neglected to pro- 
cure a guard, imagining many 
expedients by which the loss 
of Pekuah might have been 
prevented, and resolved to do 
something for her recovery, 
though none could find any- 
thing proper to be done. 

The fig, the olive, the 
pomegranate, and all other 
trees, overspread the plain, 
and gave it the appearance 
of a large garden. 

He admired the good police 
of those towns ; the justice 
that was exercised in favour 
of the poor against the rich; 
the good education of the 
children, who were trained 
to obedience, labour, sobriety, 
the love of arts and literature ; 
the exact observance of all 
the ceremonies of religion ; 
the contempt of private inter- 
est; the desire of reputation ; 
the fidelity towards their fel- 
low-subjects, and the rever- 
ence for the gods, which 
every father carefully culti- 
vated in his children. 

Calypso listened with as- 
tonishment to words so full 
of wisdom. What delighted 
her the most was to see that 
Telemachus ingenuously re- 
lated the mistakes he had 
made through precipitation 
and untractableness towards 
the wise Mentor ; she dis- 



69 



covered unusual strength and 
dignity of mind in this young 
man, who accused himself ? 
and appeared to have pro- 
fited so well by his impru- 
dences, to become wise, pro- 
vident, and temperate. 

A propitious wind already 
swelled our sails, our oars 
cut through the foaming 
waves, the vast sea was cover- 
ed with ships, the mariners 
sent forth shouts of joy, the 
shores of Egypt fled far from 
us, the hills and mountains 
gradually became level. 

We now began to see only 
sky and water, whilst the 
rising sun appeared to strike 
his sparkling flames out of 
the bosom of the sea; his 
beams gilded the summit of 
the mountains, which we 
still discovered in some mea- 
sure upon the horizon ; and 
the whole face of heaven, 
painted with a deep azure, 
promised us a prosperous 
voyage. 

Rule. — £)urfem fonnetv Iaffen, mogen, muffen/ follem roerben, 
tpolteti/ and all verbs, in general, the principal use of which 
is to limit the tenses and moods of other verbs, govern the 
infinitive, 



bernSwurbtge (Seetengto^e bet 
btefem 3ungltnge/ rcetdfcer ftd) 
felbjr antlagte, unb ber feine 
Unoorftd)ttg£etten fo roofyl benu^t 
§atte, urn metfe, porftcfytig unb 
gemdjngt 511 roerben. 

(Sin gunfttger 2£tnb firoellte 
fd)on unfere Kegels tie £Kuber 
burd)fd)mtten bte fd)dumenben 
fSSellen ; t>a$ vrefte 5CReer rcar 
mtt @d)tffen bebec£t> bte (See? 
ieute jaud)$ten$ bte egpptifdjen 
Ufer flotjen mit son uns 1 #itgel 
unb S3erge nmrben nad) unb nad) 
eben. 

9tun fingen n>iv an nur #tms 
mel unb SBaffer gu fcijeri/ xvafc 
renb bte aufgefyenbe (Sonne tfyr 
funfelnbeSgeuer au§ bemSd)oofje 
be§ SfteereS fyeraufftetgen lief. 
3f)ve ^trafylen sergolbeten bte 
@pt£en ber SSerge/ tt?eld)e ttrir 
nod) etn trentg am £ortgonte 
fa^en; unb ber £immet, mtt 
einem bunfeln SBlau bemafytt/ 
cerfytejj un6 etne gltotcfye ©djtff* 
fatjrt. 



£)te serfd)tebenen handle/ 
tt?eld)e btefe Snfein Mlbeten, 
fdbienen auf bem £anbe gu fcfyers 
gen* etntge ttdlgten tfjr flared 
Staffer, mtt grower 8d)nellig!eit 
fort a anbere tnelten etn jttttes 



The various streams which 
formed these islands seemed 
to revel in the plain ; some 
rolled along in translucent 
waves, with a tumultuous 
rapidity ; some just moved 



70 



unb faft fxefyenbeS Gaffer, nod) 
anbere famen/ burd) tt?eite Urn* 
tuege, jurM/ a(^ urn §u itjrer 
£Ute(Ie gurucr. ?;u jretgen/ unb 
fd)tenen biefe gaubenfd)en ©e? 
ftabe ntdjt oetlaffcn §u fon* 
nen. 

Selemad) antroortete feuf^enb: 
CSfyer m5gen mid) bte ©otter um= 
Somtnen i a f f c n> ate juge* 
ben ; ba§ SGBeibKcfefett unb SBSol* 
luft fid) metne£ ^er^enS bemet* 
ftern. 9letn, netn/ Ulpffeg (Sofyn 
arirb nk burd) bte SKei^e etneS 
niebrtgen unb wetbtfdjcn £eben§ 
ubentnmben roerben ! 2Cber 
tpetd)e ©unjt beg £tmmel§ fyat 
un§ nafy unferm ©djtffbrudjc 
btefe ©Sttinn ober btefe (Sterb^ 
ltd)e fin ben la f fen/ bte 
unS mit 2Bor;ltr;un ubet^auft ? 

3Me Sugenb tft bunf el^aft 5 
fie traut ftdt) 2£Ue$ ju ; obgletd) 
fdwad), glaubt fte 2ttteS §u 
£ 6 n n e n unb md)t§ b e f u r d)^ 
ten 5 u b u r f e n ; fte traut 
(eidjtftnntng unb oipne SSorftdjt. 

(£r wracbtcte mid) al$ etnen 
(d)u?ad)en getnb/ abcr ot)ne mtc^ 
burd) fetne erjraunltcbe (Starte 
nod) burd) fein tmibeS unbraufyeg 
2tnfe£)en irre m a d) e n § u I a f= 
fen/ ftteg id) metne £an$e gegen 
fetne SSruft/ unb mad)te/ bag er 
(Strome fdjroargen SBluteS au&= 
fpte/ alS er ben ($5etjr aufgab. 

Ulpffeg/ metn Sater, war einer 
ber Bornefymften Jtbntge/ weld)e 
biefe ©tabt gerftout fyaben; 
er fcfywetft auf alien SCfteeren 



along a dormant stream ; 
and others, after a long cir- 
cuit, turned back, as if they 
wished to issue again from 
their source, and were unable 
to quit this enchanted place. 

Telemachus, sighing, an- 
swered : May the gods de- 
stroy me, rather than suffer 
effeminacy and voluptuous- 
ness to enslave my heart ! 
No ! the son of Ulysses shall 
never be overcome by the 
charms of an indolent effi uri- 
nate life. But what favour of 
heaven has directed us, after 
our shipwreck, to this goddess, 
or this mortal, who loads us 
with benefits ? 

Youth is presumptuous ; 
it promises (expects) all 
things from itself; and, 
though frail, it believes it 
can compass every thing, and 
has nothing to fear ; it light- 
ly and incautiously confides. 

He despised me as a feeble 
enemy ; but, regarding nei- 
ther his prodigious strength, 
nor the fierceness of his de- 
meanour, I thrust my lance 
against his breast, and made 
him vomit torrents of black 
blood, as he gave up the 
ghost. 

Ulysses, my father, was 
one of the chief kings who 
destroyed that city ; he is 
now a fugitive on the deep, 



71 



berum, cbne He 3nfel 3tyafa# 
fcin jlonigteicb/ nneber ft n b e n 
ju f 6 nn e n. 

Sftktne ©anftmufy meine 
(§5ebulb/ metne ©enauigfeit, be- 
fdnfttgten audi enbltd) ben grau= 
famen 93utt§, bee uber tie ant em 
Sflcr:en ©etsalt batte/ unb mid) 
anfangS b>atte qudlen rootle n. 

©Ittcflid) jtnb bie, raeidbe itjr 
SBergnugen bet bem Unterricbte 
finben/ unb tie tfcren ©eift gerne 
burcb SBtjfenfdjaften auSbifben. 
2Cn H>eld)en Drt ka$ feinbltcr-e 
©efdutf fie audi ^inwirfa fo 
baben fte allcjjett etrcaS bei ftcb/ 
roomtt Jlc |td) u n t e r I) a 1 1 e n 
15 n n c n# unb tie Sangetretie/ 
n;eld)e anbere 9Jlenfd>en mitten 
unter £uftbarfetten petmgt, ijt 
benen unbefannt, ttelcre (id) mil 
Sefen gu befebafttgen trnjen. 
©lucfticb ftnb bie/ tteld)? gerne 
Xefen/ unb ntcbt it>tc icb, bQ$ Sefen 
entbetyren muff en. 

3d) bitte ben SftorpfeeuS/ 

feinen angene^mfrcn Saubec auf 
3t)re muben 2Cugenlteber au3;u= 
fenutten ; einen gottltd}en £unft 
in Sbre muben ©iteber fliefjen 
iu laffen, unb Sjjnen leic^te 
Srdume gu fducfen,. weld&e urn 
©te tjerum gaufeln, 3fyre £inne 
burd) bie lacbenbfren SStlber er* 
go^en/ unb alle§ con Sfynen cer= 
febeutfen, rcaS 8ie ju fdnelt 
a u f to e c! e n ! 6 n n t e. 

3nbem Qftentor biefe SBcrte 
fpracK nabm er tyn bet ber 
£anb, unb fu^rte itjn nad) bem 



unable to reach Ithaca, which 
is his kingdom. 

My meekness, patience, 
and diligence, at length ap- 
peased the cruel Butis, who 
was in authority over the 
other slaves, and had at first 
wished to torment me. 

Happy are those who take 
pleasure in instruction, and 
delight in cultivating their 
minds with knowledge ! 
Whithersoever adverse for- 
tune may throw them, still 
thev carrv about them suffi- 
cient to entertain themselves; 
and the uneasiness which 
preys upon other men, even 
in the midst of pleasure, is 
unknown to those who can 
employ themselves with a 
book. Happy are they who 
are fond of reading, and who 
are not, like myself, obliged 
to forego it ! 

May Morpheus shed his 
most benign influence on 
your closing eye-lids, and 
diffuse an ambrosial vapour 
through your fatigued limbs ! 
May he send the most de- 
lightful dreams to play around 
you ; fill your imagination 
with the most pleasing ideas, 
and chase far from you what- 
ever might awake you too 
soon. 

Saying these words. Men- 
tor took him by the hand, 
and pulled him towards the 



72 



shore. Telemachus followed 
reluctantly, looking inces- 
santly behind him. He kept 
his eyes upon Eucharis, as 
she was going still further 
from him ; and, when he 
could no longer see her face, 
he surveyed her beautiful 
hair tied negligently behind, 
her garments wantoning in 
the wind, and her noble gait. 

Rule. — When tw r o or more infinitives, or participles, 
depend on each other, that which is the first in English must 
be put last in German. The verbs (efyen, fyoren, &c, 
governing another verb, cannot be used in the participle, 
but must always remain in the infinitive mood. 



Ufer. Selemarf) fotgte nut ?D?irt)e, 
intern ec tmmer ^urucf fat). (Sr 
betrad)tete (Suc^ariS, roeld)e ftd) 
entfernte. £>a er tfyr @eftd)t 
ntdbt fefyen I onnte, fo befafy er 
ifyrefcfyonen aufgebunbenen#aare/ 
tyz roaltenbeg &tetb unb tfyren 
ebeln @ang. (£r batte tr;re 
gugfrapfen Ififfcn mo gen. 



Setemacb ernrieberte tfyr : £> 
©ie/ rcer ©ie aud) fetn mogen, 
etne ©terblid}e ober eine ©otttnn, 
obfdion man ©te nur fur cine 
©otrfyett fatten !ann/ roenn man 
@te anbltcft, follten ©ie unemps 
finblid) bei bem Unglucfe etneS 
©ofyneS fcirt/ rcelcber/ ber 95MUs 
!ut)r ber SSinbe unb SSogen au^= 
gefefct/ fetnen £$ater auffudjt/ unb 
fetn ©d)tf an ben gelfem weldie 
3t)re Snfel umgeben/ §at f d) e U 
tern f e i) e n ? 

£>iefe S3etrad)tungen ftellte i^ 
in meinem Unglutfe an, unb id) 
rief writ alle§ ins ($5ebad)tmg 
jurutf/ wag id) ben Mentor tjatte 
f a g e n % 6 r e n. 



Whoever you are, replied 
Telemachus, whether a mor- 
tal or a goddess, although 
from your appearance, one 
can only take you for a di- 
vinity, should you be un- 
moved by the misfortune of 
a son, who, in quest of his 
father, exposed to winds and 
seas, has seen his ship split 
against the rocks which sur- 
round your island ? 



These are the reflections 
which I made in my misfor- 
tune, and I recalled to mind 
every thing that I had heard 
Mentor say. 



Rule. — The German infinitive is usually preceded by the 
preposition gu/ when it simply expresses the object of an 
action ; and, when it more particularly denotes the aim and 
intention of an action, in addition to the above preposition, 



73 



the verb requires the particle um, which is always separated 
from §u by the case of the verb in the infinitive mood, 

2Btr fatten fctemltd) tange 
etnen gunjtigen SQStnb/ u m nadi 
©tctlten 5 u fcfyiffen ; aber nad)= 
^er oerbarg etn bujterer ©turm 
tin £immel oor unfern 2Cugen 
unb rote wurben in etne ttefe 
9la$i etngefyuilt. 

£>te Jtontge,#eld)e nur barauf 
bebad)t ftnb/ fid) gefurd)tet §u 
feroen unb bte tyre Unteri^anen 
brMen/ um fie unterttmqtger 
§ u mad)en/ ftnb bte (Set£etn beg 
Sftenfd)engefcl)ted)t§. ©te tt)er- 
ben gefurdjtet/ rote fte e§ few 
it?otlen, aber fte rcerben gefjajjt 
unb t>erab(d)eut/ unb fie fyaben 
Don tfyren Untertfyanen nod) mel)r 
alg biefe Don tynen p bei'urd)ten. 



V\ T e had for some time a 
favourable wind for going 
to Sicily; but afterwards a 
black tempest deprived our 
eyes of the sight of heaven, 
and we were enveloped in 
darkness. 

Kings who are only studi* 
ous to make themselves 
dreaded, and to oppress their 
subjects, in order to render 
them more servile, are the 
scourges of the human race; 
they are feared as they desire 
to be, but they are hated and 
detested ; and they have more 
reason to fear their subjects 
than their subjects have to 
fear them. 

Sesostris neither despised 
nor rejected any person, and 
thought that he was a king 
only to do good to all his 
subjects, whom he loved as 
his children. 

The gods have sent you 
for the purpose of delivering 
us ; 1 expect no less from 
your valour than from the 
wisdom of your counsel ; 
hasten, therefore, to assist 
us. 

Rule. — Adjectives, and participles considered as adjec- 
tives, are in German, as in English, placed before the sub- 
stantives which they modify or qualify. 

£)te brutlenben £d)jen The lowing oxen and the 
unb bte b { 6 ! e n b e n ©djafc bleating sheep came crowd- 



©efojms. cerad)tete ntemanb 
unb ttrieS ntemanben juriitf 5 er 
glaubte nur bagu £6mg § u fetn/ 
u m alien fetnen Unterttjancn* 
vozl&t er trie fetne Winter ttcbte, 
@uteg 5 u erroetfen. 

£ie ©otter b,aben eud) fyte^er 
gefd)icrt, u m ung 5 u retten ; id) 
erroarte son eurer Sapferfett 
md)t rcentger ati Don bcr £SetS= 
l>ett eures SRatfyeS, eilet un3 
betjuftefyen. 



74 



famen fyattfenumfe/ uetltegen 
bte f e tt en 2Setben unb fonnten 
ntcfit ©tctUe genug ftnben/ urn 
unter £)bka$) §u fommen. SJJlan 
i)5rte oon alien (Setten ein 
oerworreneS ©erdufd) son 
£euten/ rcelcfye fid) fortfttefkn/ 
n>eld)e fid) nidjt oerfte^en fonnten; 
tueldje in btefem SBSirrmarr etnen 
gremben fur etnen greunb an= 
fafyen unb roelcfye liefen/ ofyne §u 
wiffen rcofyin. 2Cber bte 23 o r^ 
n e t) m ft e n ber &abt> roeldje 
fid) fur flfiger t)telten/ aU bte 
anbern, biibeten fid) ein/ SCRentor 
fei ein 23etruget'/ ber eine fat? 
f d> e SSeUfagung Qtmafyt §abz f 



ing in from their luxuriant 
pastures, and could not find 
stabling enough to get under 
cover. Noise and tumuh 
were heard on all sides of 
people pressing to get in, 
who could not understand 
one another. In this confu- 
sion some took an unknown 
individual for their friend, 
and ran about, not knowing 
whither. But the principal 
men of the city, fancying 
themselves wiser than the 
rest, looked upon Mentor as 
an impostor, who had framed 
a false prediction to save his 
life. 



urn fetn £eben §u retten. 

Rule. — A genitive case, governed by a substantive, or 
an adjective, with the article ber/ bte/ ba$f may be placed 
indifferently before or after the substantive by which it is 
governed. 



Urn bte Sflfttttel, ba$ v£per§ beS 
SunglingS (or beS 3ungttngS 
£erg) ju rutjren/ bejto beffer §u 
fennen/ fragte fie tyn t auf u>eld)e 
2Crt er ©djiffbrud) gelttten fyabe, 
unb burd) n>eid)e SSorfdtle er an 
ike $ufte gefommen fei. 

©ein @ie benn ber xo u r== 
hx§i © o fy n b e 6 Utr;ffe6 unb 
§etgen ©te ein £er§/ baS grower 
ift/ al§ alleS Unglucf / roeld)e§ ©te 
bebrofyt. 

£)te Unter tfyanen be 6 2Cce=: 
fieS^burd) ?ft£ntorS S3et' 
fptel unb SSefefyle angefeuert/ 
betrtefen- etne Sapferfetr, beren 
fie ftd) nidjt fafc)tg glaubren. 



In order the better to dis- 
cover the means by which 
she might affect the young 
man's heart, she asked him 
how he had been wrecked, 
and what accident had thrown 
him upon her island. 

Act, therefore, in a man- 
ner worthy of the son of 
Ulysses, and show that you 
have a heart superior to all 
the ills which threaten you. 

The subjects of Acestes. 
encouraged by Mentor's ex- 
ample and words, felt within 
a vigour of which they 
thought themselves incapa- 
ble. 



75 



Rule. — When a word that depends on an infinitive is 
explained or determined by an incidental proposition, such 
proposition may be placed either before or after the infini- 
tive. 



Raum fyattz id) btefe . SBerte 
au3ge[prod)en/ aU ba$ gange 
fSol! aufgebra&t auSrtef, man 
muffe ben ©ofyn btefeS graufamen 
UtyffeS, bejfen SRdnfe tie ©tabt 
Sroja jerftcd; fatten; umbrtn^ 
gen. 

£> @o§n be6 UlgffeS ! fagte 
mir 2Ccej?e§, id) fann 3t)t Slut 
ben Sl^anen fo meler Zto\amv f 
meldhe 3^ SSater an tie lifer beg 
fdjmaqen £ocr;tuS gefturjt fyat/ 
nid)t r> e r f a g e n. 

©o balb it>tr §u SORempfyiS/ 
€tner mdd)tigen unb practooUen 
<Stabt ange!ommen waren/ befall 
ber ©tabt^attet/ baf; rotr bte nad) 
Sfyeben reifen follten, urn bem 
Jtbmge ©efoftrte oorgcftetlt 
5 u n> e r b e m bee bte (^adbe 
felbft unterfud;en moltte unb ber 
gegen bte &t)rer fe^r aufgebrad)t 
tt>ar. 



Scarcely had I spoken 
these words when all the 
people cried out in a rage, 
The son of this cruel Ulys- 
ses, whose artifices have 
overthrown the city of Troy, 
must be put to death. 

O son of Ulysses ! said 
Acestes to me, I cannot re- 
fuse your blood to the manes 
of so many Trojans, whom 
your father has prematurely 
hurled to the banks of the 
black Cocytus. 

As soon as we had arrived 
at Memphis, a rich and 
magnificent city, the gover- 
nor gave orders that we 
should go to Thebes, to be 
presented to king Sesostris, 
who would examine things 
himself, and who was greatly- 
incensed against the Tyrians. 



Rule. — When two or more infinitives, or participles, 
depend on each other, that which is the first in English 
must be put last in German. 



S&eber defter, vreUten td) §u 
g)r>log befiutte, nod) sERenelauS/ 
wetefcev mid) freunbfd)aftUd) in 
Sacebdmon aufnatjm, fonnte 
mir fagen/ ob mem SBater nod) 
am Seben ware $ mube immer 
in imi\ei unb Ungewiptyeit ju 



Neither Nestor, whom I 
saw at Pylosj nor Menelaus, 
who received me kindly at 
Lacedsemon, could tell me 
whether my father was still 
alive ; weary of living in 
continual suspense and un- 



76 



leben> befcfytofj td) nad) Sicilten 
&u fa^reit/ roo^iti/ rote id) getjotrt 

batte, mein SSater turd) tie 
SOStnbe roar u e r f d) I a 9 e n 
ro or b e n. 

3d) benu^te btefen 2Cufentfjalt, 
um bte bitten ber bet alien be^ 
fannten STattonen [0 berufymten 
^bontjier fennen § u ( e r^ 
n e n. 



certainty, I resolved to go to 
Sicily, whither I had heard 
my father had been driven 
by the winds. 

I made use of this sojourn 
to get to understand the 
manners and customs of the 
Phoenicians, so renowned in 
all the nations of the earth. 



Rule. — -The prepositions au§, aufkr/ bet/ &c, govern 
the dative case ; burd), fur/ um, &c, govern the accu- 
sative, and auf, Winter, an, &c, the dative and accusative 
cases. 



3d) berounberte bie gluctltdje 
Sage btefcr grofjen <&tabi f roelcbe 
mitten tm SJleere auf etner 
Snfet Uegr. £)te benad)bam 
Mjte tft retjenb b u r d) tore 
grud)tbarfett, burd) bte oortreffs 
ud)en grud)te, roelcbe fie fyersor 
brtngt, burd) bie stafyl ber Stable 
unb £>6rfer, wetdjc fid) faffc be= 
rufyrem unb enbltd) burd) tf)r 
nrilbeS Silima ; benn bte Serge 
fd)u|en ttefe 3tufte 9 c 9 e n bte 
brennenben ©ubrotnbe/ unb ffe 
rotrb burd) ben 9?orbrotnb/ roek 
d)er uber§ SKeec blajr, erfrtfebt. 
3Mefe$ £anb Itegt am gufk beg 
SibanonS* beffen . ©tpfel bte 2BoU 
fen sertfyetlt unb faffc bte Sterne 
berufyrt ; gluffe son gefdjmolges 
nem Sd)nee futrgen rote retgenbc 
Strbme n ben gelfen fyerab, 
roeldtje fetne (Spige umgeben. 
U n t e n fte^t man etnen roett* 
Idufttgen 2Baib ucn uratten 
3ebern, bte eben fo alt §u fetn 



I admired the happy situ- 
ation of this great city, which 
is built upon an island in the 
sea. The neighbouring coast 
is attractive for its fertility, 
the exquisite fruits it pro- 
duces, its towns and villages, 
which are almost contiguous 
to each other ; and, lastly, for 
the mildness of its climate, 
for the mountains screen 
this coast from the scorching 
southern winds, whilst it is 
refreshed by the north wind 
that blows from the sea. 
The country is at the foot of 
Lebanon, the summit of 
which penetrates the clouds 
and touches the sky ; rivers 
of melted snow descend 
like torrents from the rocks 
which surround its head. 
Beneath is seen a vast forest 
of aged cedars, that seem 
coeval with the earth on 



77 



fcfjeinen alg tie (Srbe/ vo o r a u f 
fte geppanjt (tnb# unb tie tyre 
bicr-ten gtuet^e big § u ben 
Sffiolfen ftrecfen. SDiefer SBalb 
bat untet fetnen gufsen am 2fe 
^jange bee SBergeS fctte 23tet)metben/ 
morauf brfiUenbe Sttere unb 
blofente Senate £}erum gefyen/ 
mtt t^ren barren a u f bem 
©cafe t>upfenben ftdmmern 5 
bort fltegen taufenb §3ad)e son 
flarem Gaffer. 

©hblidj, unter btefen gBeiben/ 
fte£)t man ben gug be>S Merges 
qletd) etnem ©anen 5 grueling 
unb £erbjr ^errfdjen £)ier 3 us 
g(etd)/ unb brtngen Sttumen unb 
grucbte t}en>or. 9?ie r)at ber 
oerpeftete £aud) beg (SubnrinbeS/ 
ber alleg ausrreefnet unD Der* 
brennt, nod) ber ftrenge 9?orb= 
winb/ tie tebfyaften garbert/ meld;e 
btefen ©arten giereiv d e 1 1 6* 
f d) e n ! 6 n n e n. 

S5 e t btefer fct]6nen Hujre 
fteigt bte Snfel, roorauf tie 3rabt 
Zx)im gebaut £ft# a u g bem 
Sfteere. £)tefe gro§e &tabt 
febetnt auf bem SBafier gu fdjaum? 
men/ unb bte $onigtmi beg 
gangen 50teere§ gu fetn. £auf= 
leute aug alien SSeltt^eilen 
tanben bafelbft; unb itjre SBes 
moaner f e I b ft fi'nb tie fcerufyms 
tefren ^aufieure in ber SBelt, 
££enn man in biefe (Stabi tritt, 
fo glaubt man anfangg/ eg 
fel I e i n e etnem befenbern 
SSolfe 5tiget)6rtge ©tabt, fc 



which they grow, and bear 
their spreading branches to 
the clouds. At the foot of 
this forest are rich pastures, 
on the declivity of the moun- 
tain. Here are seen the 
bellowing bulls wandering 
up and down, and the bleat- 
ing ewes, with their tender 
lambkins, skipping about 
in the grass ; there flow a 
thousand streams of purest 
water. 

Finally, below these pas- 
tures appears the foot of the 
mountain, like a garden ; 
here spring and autumn reign 
both together, producing 
fruits and flowers. Never 
has either the pestilential 
blast of the south wind, which 
dries and burns up every 
thing, or the chilling north 
wind, been able to blot out 
the lively colours which 
adorn this garden. 

Not far from this beautiful 
coast, rises in the sea the 
island on which the city of 
Tyre is built. This power- 
ful city seems to swim above 
the waves, and to be the 
queen of all the sea. Mer- 
chants from every part of 
the globe land there, and its 
own inhabitants are the most 
renowned merchants in the 
world. When you first enter 
this city, you would not take 
it for a place belonging to 
any particular people, but 

h 3 



78 



etr.e alien 936lfern gemeinfdjaft* 
itd)c ©tabt unb bee Sftittelpunft 
ifyresS £anDel§. (gte t}ac gwei 
grope £)amme, roelcfye ftd), gteid) 
langen 'tfrmen/ t n ba§ SQZeec 
erftrecfen/ unb einen nmtiduftigen 
£afen einfaffen/ tueld)er 9 e g e n 
bie 2$inbe gefd)u£t tjr. 3>n btes 
fern £afen fiefyi man gleid)[am 
etnen SBalb ooti ©djipmajien/ 
unb biefc ©djiffe ftnb fo gal)l« 
retd)/ bap man faum ba£ SReer/ 
welches fie trdgt, entbedien !ann. 
2CUe burger legen fidtj a u f ben 
Jpanbel, unb ifyre grojsen Sfceicfys 
tfyumer oerurfadjen bod) b e i 
ifynen feinen Uebevbrup g e g e n 
tie nottjige Tlxhtit, )& §u oer- 
mefyren. Uebcrali ftefyt man tie 
feine eggptifdje Setnmanb/ unb 
ben sroetmal gefdrbten t*)rtfdcn 
^ucpu-c oon etnem berounbern^ 
uniroigen ©lange 5 biefc boppelte 
garbe i)z fo iebfyaft/ bap bie peit 
fte ntd)t oerbleid)en farm, man 
bebtent ftd) hewn 511 ber feinen 
SBoUe/ treiu e man m i t einec 
@titferei Don ®olb ivab (Sitber 
ert)6t)t. £)ie ^onijict fyanbeln 
m i t alien 836lfern big §u ber 
^eerenge ©ateS (olabt$) unb 
fie ftnb fogar in hen gropen 
Djean gebrungen/ u?eld)ec bie 
gan&e @rbe umgibt. Bk fyabtn 
lange (Seereifen a u f tern rotten 
2J£eete gemacfyt/ unb a u f biefem 
2£ege fyoien fie ©olb/ 2Bei^ 
raud) unb oevfd)teeene anber= 
wans unbelannte Sfyiere. 

3d) fonnte mid) an bem 



rather to be a city common 
to all nations, and the centre 
of their commerce. It has 
two large mounds, which, 
like long arms, advancing 
into the sea, form a vast har- 
bour, impervious to the 
winds. In this harbour you 
see as it w r ere, a vast forest 
of masts, and the ships are 
so numerous that you can 
hardly see the sea which 
bears them on its bosom. 
All the citizens betake them- 
selves to trade, and yet their 
vast possessions never cause 
them to grow tired of the 
labour necessary to increase 
. their store. There, in all 
quarters, you see the fine 
Egyptian linen, and the Ty- 
rian purple twice dyed, and 
of a wonderful brightness. 
This double tincture is so 
strong, that time itself cannot 
destroy it. They make use 
of it upon the finest cloth, 
set off with gold and silver 
embroidery. The Phoeni- 
cians trade with all nations, 
as far as the straits of Gades 
(Cadiz) ; and they have 
even proceeded into the vast 
ocean that surrounds the 
earth. They have also made 
long voyages on the Red Sea, 
and thither they go in quest 
of gold, perfumes, and va- 
rious animals, not known 
elsewhere. 

I could not sufficiently 



79 



admire the magnificent sight 
of this great city, where 
every thing was in motion . 
I did not see there, as in the 
towns of Greece, idle inqui- 
sitive men. going to the pub- 
lic places in quest of news, 
or to gaze at strangers who 
arrive in the port. 



majcjiaitf&n Sdbaufpiete btefer 
©rabt/ roo allcg in SBeroeaung 
roar/ ntcht fatt fefyen. 3d) fab 
r)ier ntcht/ rote in ben gried)ifd)en 
©tdbtetn mCtjnge unb neugiertge 
Seure/ toeldje a u f ben offents 
Xtdben 3>la$en n a c§) 9£eutg£eiten 
tyafctyen unb tie tm |>afeti an= 
fommenben gremben begaffen. 

Rule. — The verbs $aben and fetn are often understood 
after a participle, and, when several verbs or participles 
occur in the same sentence, the auxiliary verb is not re- 
peated, but is placed alone at the end of the sentence. 

$Ran fat) babet fein anbereS There no other viands 

gleifdv al§ vow £36geln/ roeld.e were seen but the flesh of 

birds which they had taken 
in nets, or of animals which 
they had killed with their 
arrows in the chase, 

I seek my father upon all 
the seas ; if I can neither 
find him, nor return to my 
native country, nor avoid 
thraldom, take from me that 
life which is intolerable to 
me. 

I see indeed, answered he? 
O stranger, that the gods, 
who have granted you so 
small a share of the favours 
of fortune, have bestowed on 
you a portion of wisdom that 
is more valuable than all 
prosperity in the world. 

The officer to whom the 
king had committed the exa- 
mination of our case, had a 
soul as corrupt and crafty as 
Sesostris was sincere and 
generous. 



jie in 9te§en gefangen ; ober ton 
Sfyteren/ roetcbe fie auf ber 3sQb 
nut tr-ren pfetlen erlegt fatten. 

3d) fudje metnen SSater auf 
alien SDReereni unb roenn id) tfyn 
nidjt ftnben, nodi in metn SSater^ 
lanb §uructiet)ven/ nod) tie S!ia- 
Derawrmeften t a n n, fo netymen 
(£te mtr ba$ Seberi/ trelcl;e^ mir 
unertrdgltd) ifi. 

3d) fel;e xvol)h aniroertete zx, 
£) grembling/ ta% tie ©otter/ 
roeldje ©ie fo fd;led)t mtt ©Lucres 
gutern oerferjen I) a b e n, Stynen 
etne SOBeutyett gegebeit/ treUte 
fdja^barer tfr, alUUer SBofyljtanb. 



£er SBeamfe/ roeld^m ber 
£5ntg bte Unterutd;ung unferer 
&cd)t aufgetrogeti/ f) a 1 1 e cine 
zbm fo oerbcrbene unb t)inter= 
lifttge @eele/ a is @fefoftri§ auf* 
ridjttg unb grofmutfjtg roar. 



80 



Mentor ergd^tte mir in ber Mentor has since told me, 

golge, ba$ man tyxi an 2i"etr;ioper that they sold him to some 

oerfauft unb er btefe in ifyr Ethiopians, whom he accom- 

SSaterlanb begleitet fy a b e. panied into their own country. 

Rule. — There is a necessary correlation between certain 
conjunctions^ so that when the first part of a sentence, or 
the antecedent, begins with one, the second part, or the 
consequent, begins with its correlative. 

SBenn ba$ UnglucB beg jtmgen If the misfortunes of young 
Selcmad)/ roeldjer me bte SSaffen Telemachus, who has never 

gegen bte Srojaner gefufyrt tyatt 
<Sie nicbt bewegen tar\n, f o mug 
@ic roemgften6 3$r eigner &or= 
tfyeil rufyren. 

2B e b e r 9tefior, weld-en i&) 
§u Stylos befudjte/ nod) Splen^ 
laus, rc-eld-er mid) freunbfdbafts 
ltd) in Sacebdmon aufnafym, 
f onnten mtr fagen ob mein SSater 
nod) am Seben ware. 

^ a u m rcaren mtr an ba$ 
Ufer gefommen, aU bie @tn* 
wofyner glaubten wtr wdren 
e n t m e b e r anbere 236l£er 
ber Snfel/ weldje fid) bewaffnet 
fatten/ urn fie ju uberfatlen, 
o b e r grembc/ weldje fid) ibrer 
Sdnbereien bemdduigen woilten. 

2B e n n ber Summer uber 
unfere ©efangenfdbaft un$ nid)t 
gegen alleS Sergnugen unemp= 
finbtid) gemacfct 'cdtte, f o tuurben 
wir bte je§ frudjtbare @gx)ptenlanb/ 
raeidicS gleid) etnem anmutfyigen 
©arten son einer unjdt)tbaren 
Sttenge handle bewdffert xoixbt 
mix £uft betracbtet fyaben. 

Seben Sag §u gewiffen <2tun^ 
h^n t)6rte er Meienigen oon fei* 
nen Untenfyanen an, roeldje tym 



borne arms against the Tro- 
jans, cannot move you, at 
least let your own interest 
do so. 

Neither Nestor, whom I 
saw at Pylos, nor Menelaus, 
who received me kindly in 
Lacedsemon, could tell me 
whether my father was still 
alive. 

Hardly were we on the 
shore, when the inhabitants 
thought we were either some 
other people of the island 
armed to surprise them, or 
strangers who intended to 
seize on their country. 

If the grief arising from 
our captivity had not render- 
ed us insensible to all plea- 
sures, our eyes would have 
been delighted with the sight 
of the fruitful land of Egypt, 
which resembled a beautiful 
garden, watered by an infi- 
nite number of canals. 

Every day he listened at 
certain hours, to all his sub- 
jects who had either com- 



81 



entroebeu jvlagen oorgutra^ 
gen o b e r 2krid)te abguftatten 
fatten. 

SBenn er ben gan^en Sag 
gearbeitet t)atte/ tie ©efdjdfte &u 
orbnen unb genaue ©erecfettgfeit 
^u oernjolten/ fo ert)oite er 
ftd) beg 2Cbenbg/ t n b e m er 
gelet)rten SQRcinnern jutyorte, obec 
ftd) mit ben redjtfdjaffenften 
Seuten unterrebete/ roeldje er 
fet)r gut auggtm>at)len oerftanb, 
urn fte §u feiner &5ertrautid)£ett 
gujulaffen. 

Rule. — The infinitive mood, separable prepositions, and 
past participles, are placed at the end of their own mem- 
ber of the sentence. The verb is usually placed at the 
end of the sentence, as the word which more particularly 
determines the sense of the phrase. 



plaints to make or advice to 
give to him. 

After he had employed 
the whole day in administer- 
ing impartial justice, he con- 
versed in the evening, by way 
of relaxation, with the wisest 
and best of his subjects, 
whom he knew well how to 
select, in order to admit them 
to his familiarity. 



©g tji 3ett, jagte fte $u tfym/ 
ba$ ©te nari) fo otelen 93iut)e= 
feltgfettcn tie 2£nnefymltd)fetten 
beg ©d)fofe§ g e n t e § e n. $kz 
fyaben <&k mdjtS gu f u r d) t e n ; 
alieg ijl Sfynen gimjitg. 

£>a id) bti ten (5i)pnern xvax f 
beren ©ttten id) md)t ! a n n t e, 
fo befd)loJ3 i6) § u f d) w e t g c n, 
anb alle Sfcegeln beg 2Cnftanbeg 
§ u b e o b a d) t e n, urn tfyre 
2Cd)tung 3 u g e tt)i n n e n. 



2Cnfang§ empfanb id) 2Cbfd)eu 
gegen alleg wag id) f a I) ; unoer^- 
mcrCt aber png id) a n mid) 
baran 5 u geroStyncn. 

3d) glid) ettiem Sftenfcfyen/ 
ipelcber in etnem ttefen unb rei= 
Lenten (Strome fdjwimmtj 



It is time for you, said 
she to him, to go and enjoy 
the sweets of sleep after so 
many labours. You have 
nothing to fear here ; every 
thing is in your favour. 

As I w r as in company with 
the Cyprians, whose manners 
I did not understand, I re- 
solved to be silent, to notice 
everything that passed, and to 
observe all the rules of pru- 
dence, in order to gain their 
esteem, 

At first I was horror- 
struck with every thing I saw, 
but I insensibly began to get 
accustomed to it. 

I was like a man swim- 
ming in a deep and rapid 
river ; at first he dashes the 



82 



anfang§ burd)fd)neibet er ba$ 
£Bajfer unb fdjwimmt gegen ben 
@trom a n 5 aber menu tie Ufer 
fieit f t n b/ menn er am ®eftabe 
ntd)t auSrufyen I a n n# er^ 
mubet er enbiid) nad) unb nad)/ 
fetne £raft t>erldft ifyn, fetne 
muben ©Iteber erjiarren/ unb ber 
(Strom re if t ifyn fort. 

Jtaum $at id) fo g e r e b e t, 
alS mein <Sd)mer§ gelinber murbe 
unb metn £>er§/ son etner ti)6^ 
ridjtcn Setbenfdjaft b e r a u f d) t, 
faft atle ©dbam a b I e 9 1 e 5 barm 
murbe id) nneber in einen 2Cb^ 
qrunb son ©emiffen^biffen ges 
fturgt. 

£)tefe greube war son iener 
anbern roetdjltdjen unb tetdbtfer= 
ttgen greube,. toomit meine (gtnne 
anfangS maren oergtffet to r^ 
ben/ fefyr serfdneben ; Me eine 
tfi eine greube/ treldje ber Sruns 
fentjeit unb (Stnne^errutung 
g t e i d) t/ unterbrocfyen oon ra[en= 
ben Setbenfcfcaften unb nagenben 
©enriffenSbtffen ; bte anbte ijt 
cine greube ber SSernunft/ meldhe 
etma§ ^etiges unb £immltf&e§ 
an fid) !)at5 fte ift pets rein 
unb ftd) qkid) 5 9ttd}t§ lann fte 
erfd)5pfen; ) e m e t) r man 
fid) tbr t) t n 9 1 b t/ be fro ffc 
f er tfl; fte 5 fte entgucft bte ©eele/ 
ofyne fte § u beunrufytgen. 
£)ann t)ergofj id) greubentfyranen/ 
unb id) fanb/ baj? nidjts fuper tffc 
al6 fo su me in en. 

(So j e t) r un£ bas £anb ber 
Snfel (Sxvpern t>ernad)tafiigt unb 



waves aside, and rises vigor- 
ously against the stream ; but 
if the banks are steep, and 
he cannot find a place to 
rest himself upon, he gradu- 
ally gets tired, and at length 
his strength forsakes him, 
his exhausted limbs grow 
stiff, and the stream carries 
him away. 

Scarcely had I spoken 
thus, when my pain became 
less poignant, and my heart, 
intoxicated with a foolish 
joy, almost shook off all 
shame ; then I found myself 
again plunged into an abyss 
of remorse. 

This joy was very different 
from that loose and dissolute 
joy which had poisoned my 
senses ; one is the joy of 
drunkenness and disorder, 
interrupted by furious and 
tormenting remorse ; the 
other is a joy of reason, in 
which there is something 
heavenly and divine. It is 
always pure and equal ; no- 
thing can exhaust it ; the 
deeper we drink of it, the 
more agreeable is the taste. 
It ravishes the soul, without 
discomposing it. Then I 
poured forth tears of joy, 
and found that nothing was 
sweeter than to weep in this 



manner. 



In the same degree that 
the land of Cyprus had ap- 



83 



unangebaut gefcfytenen fyattt, peared neglected and uneul- 

um fo mefyr geigte ftdj Siztta tivated, did Crete seem fer- 

frud)tbar unb burcb tie Arbeit tile and adorned with all 

femer S3en>ot)net mtt allerijanb kinds of fruits, through the 

grud)ten g e f d) m u ct t. labour of the inhabitants. 

Rule. — The Germans agree, generally, with the English 
in the use of the indicative and subjunctive moods, the sense 
requiring, in both languages, the indicative where the verb 
denotes any thing that is determined and certain, and the 
subjunctive, where any thing contingent or doubtful is ex- 
pressed. 

This rule is general, and, consequently, not without ex- 
ception ; the sentences which follow contain exemplifications 
both of the rule and of some of its exceptions. 

£)er Dowefymjte btefer ©retfe The most distinguished 
6 f f n e t e ba$ @efe§bud) beg among these old men, opened 
SDRtnog. £)teg war em grofkS 
S3ud)/ tt>eld)e§ man geroofynltd) 
in etnem golbenen mtt rootylne* 
d)enbem 9fcaud)tt>erf angefutiten 
Mftdien t) e r u> a i) r t e. 2CUe 
btefe ©retfe I & $ t e n eg efyfs 
furcfytgooll 5 berm fie f a g t e n, 
bafj ndd)ft ben ©Sttew/ con 
tt>elrf)en bte guten @efe£e $ e r^ 
f o m m e n, 9ttd)tS ben SCRenfcfyen 
fo t)etltg fetn m u fv aU bicfe 
©efege, beren S3eftimmung tjr 
fie gut/ rceife unb glucf(td) §u 
macfyen. SDtejenigen^ weldje bte 
®efe|e in £cmben i) a b e n, urn 
bte Golfer §u regieven/ m u f f e n 
fid) feibjl oon ben ©efe^en re* 
gteren laffen 5 term md)t ber 
Sftenfd), fonbern bag ®efe§ f 1 1 
regteren. £)teS war ber 2Cu§* 
brutf btefer Sffietfen. £)ann 
fd)lug berjentge, weldjer ben 3Sor=: 
ft© tyatte, brei gragen uor, 



the book of the laws of Minos. 
It was a large book, which 
they usually kept locked up 
in a perfumed casket made 
of gold. All these ancients 
kissed it with great respect ; 
for they said, that next to 
the gods, from whom good 
laws proceed, nothing ought 
to be so sacred among men, 
as those laws the intention of 
which is to make them good, 
wise, and happy. Those who 
have the laws in their hands 
for the purpose of governing 
the people, ought always to 
suffer themselves to be guided 
by the law ; it is the law, 
and not the man, that ought 
to reign. This was the ex- 
pression of these sages. Then 
he who had the precedency 
proposed three questions, 



84 



welcfie wad) btn ©runbfafcen beg 
9Dfttno§ aufgcl61t werben foltten. 

£>te crfre grage war tie/ 
wer ber freiejte non alien 9Jcens 
fcfyen f e t. (ginige anttuo v= 
t e t e it/ eg radrc em .ftonig/ 
welder uber fetn SSotf etne un^ 
umfdjrSnlte ?0^adbt I) a x t e* unb 
ftegretd) gegen alle feine getnbe 
ware. 2£nbere b e fy a u p t e^ 
t e n, eg ware em @old)er/ ber 
fo rctd) ware/ ba% er alle feine 
fSSunfdbe befriebtgen fonnte. 
2lnbere fagten/ eg ware ein 
SORen(ci)/ wetdier ftd) md)t d e iv 
!) e t r a 1 1) e t e unb ber fetn 
gangeg £eben in uerfdnebenen 
Sanbern umtjcr r e t f e t z, ofyne 
ieboct) ben ©efefcen irgenb enter 
Elation uitterworfen 5U (ein. 
2£nbere ft e 11 1 e n ftd) r, eg 
ware ein SBarbar, welder t>on 
ber 3agb mitten in SBalbern 
libit, unb bat)er oon f enter 
^oli^ei unb rcn £einen £3eburf= 
ni fieri abfyange. 2Cnbere 
g I a u b t e m eg w & r e ein fo 
cben aug ber &iiawm befreieter 
SDRenfdv weit er aug ber @trenge 
ber £tenjtbarteit erloft/ mefjr 
alg jeber anbere bte 2Cnne't)mlid)' 
lett ber grctyett f d) m e d? t c. 
sftod) anbere fatten ben (Sin- 
fall gu befyaupten/ eg ware ein 
©terbenber, weit ber Sob it;rt 
yon atlem b e f r e t e/ unb alle 
«0lenfd)en jufammen feine ©ewalt 
mefyr uber tfyn fatten. 

2116 bie €Heir;e an mid) lam, 
£ jf c t e eg mid) feine SDftutje 
gu antworten/ weil id) bag/ wag 



which were to be decided by 
the maxims of Minos. 

The first question was, 
Who is the freest of all men ? 
Some answered : that it was 
a king who had an absolute 
power over his people, and 
had subdued all his enemies. 
Others asserted that it was a 
man so rich that he could 
gratify all his wishes. Others 
said, it was a man who did 
not marry, and who travelled 
all his life in different coun- 
tries, without ever being 
subject to the laws of any 
nation. Others conceived 
that it was a barbarian, who, 
living by hunting in the 
midst of the woods, was inde- 
pendent of any government, 
and subject to no sort of 
want. Others believed it 
was a man just set at liberty, 
because coming out of the 
hardships of servitude, he 
enjoyed the sweets of free- 
dom more than any other. 
Others, again, maintained 
that it was a dying man, be- 
cause death freed him from 
all trouble, and because all 
mankind, together, had no 
longer any power over him. 



When it came to my turn, 
I had no difficulty to answer, 
because I had not forgotten 



85 



mtr Mentor fo oft gefagt ntd)t 
uergeffen tyatte. £)er freteftc 
von alien COlenfdjen/ antioortete 
id), i ft berjemge/ metd)er tn bee 
©flaoeret felbjt fret fetn I an n. 
3n welcijem Sanbe unb tn roeldjem 
©tanbe man aud) fetn m 6 g z, 
fo ift man gan§ fret/ roenn man 
tic ©otter f u r d) t e t/ unb jroar 
nur fte alletn f u r d) t e t. SERit 
etnem 2Borte ; ber roafyrfyaft frete 
SOlenfd) ift berjemge/ ber oon 
alter gurd)t unb alter SSegterbe 
entfernt/ nur ben ©ottern unb 
fetner 23ernunft unterroorfen 
i ft. £>te ©retfe f a I) e n ftd) 
lacfeelnb an, unb raaren er= 
ftaunt/ ka$ metne 2Cntwort ge= 
rabe btejentge be§ fOltno§ war. 

Rule. — Incidental sentences are placed immediately 
after the word which they explain or modify. When there 
is a concurrence of regimens, the personal pronouns in 
regimen are put immediately after the verb of the subject. 
Instead of the present participle, it is better, as well as 
more elegant, to use the verb, with one of the particles 
tnbem/ txx, roafyrenb/ nad)bem/ &c. Adverbs of time, and all 
expressions which denote time, as well as adverbs of nega- 
tion, are usually placed after the personal pronouns. In 
placing several regimens, it is of less importance to consult 
the brevity or length of each regimen in particular, than 
the nearer or more remote connection which it may have 
with the verb. 



what Mentor had often 
told me. The freest of all 
men, I replied, is he who can 
be free in slavery itself. In 
what condition or country 
soever a man is, he is per- 
fectly free if he fears the 
gods, and only them. In a 
word, the man who is truly 
free, is he who, being disen- 
gaged from all dread and all 
anxious desire, is subject only 
to the gods and his own rea- 
son. The old men looked 
at each other smiling, and 
were surprised to find that 
my answer was exactly that 
of Minos. 



2tbrajt/ beffen Sruppen be= 
tradjtltd) jufammengefdjmoljen 
xvaven, fyatte ftd) I) inter ben 
£3erg 2Culon ^urutfge^ogen/ urn 
metjrere £filf&>6lfcr gu erroarten/ 
unb bann feine getnbe nod) ein 



Adrastus, whose troops 
had been considerably di- 
minished in the battle, had 
posted himself behind Mount 
Aulon, to wait for some re- 
inforcements, and to try once 
I 



86 



mat gu uberfallen; gtetd) einem 
fyungrigen S6n?eri/ tselcfyer au3 
einer (gdjdferet cerjagt roorben 
if!/ mieber in tie bujtern SBdtber 
unb in feine #5r;le gurucffefyrt/ 
wo er feine gatme unb feine 
&tauen &e§r unb ben gunftigen 
2£ugenbM ablauert; tie #eerben 
gu entuivgen. 

9t a d) b e m Selemad) bafur 
geforgt fratte; im Sager eine 
genaue $rieg§§ud)t eingurtd)ten, 
n>ar er nur tarauf bebad)t^ ein 
SSorfyaben au^ufufyren, rcelcbeS 
er gefajjt tyatte/ unb ba$ er alien 
#nfut)tern ber 2Crmee cer^eim^ 
lifytt. (S d) o n feit I a n g e 
rourbe er all? yiad)ti burd) 
Srdume beunrufytgt/ n?eld)e ifym 
fetnen $ater Ult)ffe§ corftellten. 
£>tefe$ liebe SSilb !am allegeit 
gegen ba$ (Snbe ber Sftacfyt, efye 
bie S£ftorgentott)e burd) tfyten 
aufftetgenben @lan§ bie unbe= 
jldnbtgen (Sterne com vgnmmel/ 
unb ben ftifjen (Sd)laf mit fetnen 
flatternben Sraumen con ber 
(Srbe certrieb. 25 a I b glaubte 
er ben Ul^ffe§ nalt a u f einer 
glucfltdjen Snfel a m Ufer etnes 
gluffcg auf einer mit SSlumen 
gefcfymucften UBiefe gu fet)en> um= 
geben con Sj^mpfyen, n?eld)e 
il)m $tetber g u feiner S3ebecf ung 
guroarfen. S3 a I b glaubte er 
ir;n in einem con (Mb unb dU 
fenbetn gtdnjenben spatajfe reben 
gu l)6ren/ a 9Jcenfd)en, roeldfce 
mitSSlumen befrangt roaren, tfym 
mtt^ergnugen unb SSemunberung 
gufyorten. £ft erfcfyten tt)m 



more to surprise the enemy ; 
like a famished lion, which, 
having been driven from a 
sheepfold, returns again into 
the gloomy forest, and re- 
enters his den, where he 
whets his teeth and his claws, 
waiting for a favourable op- 
portunity to destroy the flock. 
Telemaehus, having intro- 
duced a strict discipline 
throughout the army, now 
applied himself solely to exe- 
cute a design which he had 
conceived, and which he 
concealed from all the com- 
manders of the army. He 
had already, for a considera- 
ble time, been disturbed 
every night by dreams which 
placed his father Ulysses 
before him. This dear image 
always came towards the end 
of the night, before Aurora, 
with her dawming light, be- 
gan to chase from the hea- 
vens the wandering stars, 
and from the earth gentle 
sleep w T ith his fluttering 
dreams. Sometimes he fan- 
cied he saw Ulysses naked 
in one of the fortunate 
islands, on the bank of a 
river, in a meadow embel- 
lished with flowers, amidst a 
circle of nymphs, who were 
throwing garments to him to 
cover himself with. Some- 
times he thought he heard 
him talk in a palace glitter- 
ing with gold and ivory, 



87 



UtyfieS p(o£ttd) auf ©ajfc 
mctfern, m o greube u n t e r 
(5rg5§ltd)t:etten fd)tmmerte# unb 
mo man tie aiujenefymen Scne 
etner (Stimme in SBegtettung einer 
Setec t)6rtc/ me{d)e fanftcr mar 
alS tie Seter be£ 2CpoIl§ unb bte 
(Stimmen alter SDlufen. 



Snbeffen brang ber ©o$n be€ 
Uti^jfegf mtt bem £)egen in ber 
gaujr, in btefe fcr,rec?ttd)e gtnfter= 
mg. SSalD bemerft er einen 
fdbroadjen unb bunfeln (Shimmer/ 
fo true man beg 9t a d) 1 6 auf 
ber (Srbe ftet>t. dt bemerft 
Cetd)te ©djatten, meld)e tf)n urn? 
pattern $ er entfernt fte mit 
feinem £>egen. £)ann fter)t er 
bte traurigen Ufer beg morajrtgen 
glupeS/ befjen fdjlammtgeS unb 
ftetyenbeS Sffiaffer fid) nur im 
SBtrbel umbrefyt. 

(£r entbecft an biefem ($ejrabe 
etne gafyUofe 9Jlenge oon Sobten, 
meldfce be$ SBegrabniffeS beraubt 
ftnb/ unb (id) bem unerbttts 
Ctdjen (Sharon uergeblid) barjteU 
len. liefer ©ott, beffen emtgeS 
2£lter ftets traurtg unb murrtfd), 
aber soil Sebr;afttg!eit ift, jl6pt 
fie gurucf, unb nimmt fogtetd) 
ben jungen ©rtedjen in fetne 
S3arle. 2Clg Setemad) fyinetn* 
fiieg, t)6rte er bag ©eufjen etneS 
(Sci}atteng/ roeldjer ftdr) ntd)t 
troften fonnte. 



where he was listened to 
with pleasure and admiration 
by men crowned with flowers. 
Often Ulysses appeared to 
him suddenly at festivals 
where joy shone forth amidst 
delights, and where you 
might hear the soft harmony 
of a voice accompanying a 
harp, more melodious than 
the harp of Apollo and the 
voices of all the muses. 

Meanwhile the son of 
Ulysses, with his sword in 
his hand, rushes into this 
horrible darkness. Presently 
he perceives a faint and 
gloomy light, such as we see 
in the night-time on earth. 
He observes nimble ghosts 
fluttering round him, and he 
puts them away with his 
sword. Shortly after he 
espies the melancholy banks 
of the marshy river, the foul 
and sluggish waters of which 
turn in a continual eddy. 

On the bank of this river 
he discovers an innumerable 
crowd of departed souls, who 
being destitute of burial, in 
vain present themselves to 
the inexorable Charon. This 
diety,. whose eternal age is 
morose and fretful, yet vigor- 
ous, threatens and repulses 
them all ; but immediately ad- 
mits into his boat the young 
Greek. As Telemachus en- 
tered, he heard the groans of 
a certain disconsolate shade. 



88 



Scfy war, fa^tc ifym biefet 
fatten, 9tabopt)argan, ,5t&nig 
be§ ftolgen 23ab9lon§ $ atle 2S6l!er 
beS CrientS gitterten bet bcm 
blogen ©d)alle meineS SKamenS ; 
id) lief? mid) uon ben S3abt)lc? 
mem in etnem marmornen gems 
pel, wo id) burd) etne golbene 
£3ilbfaule sorgeftetlt war, sor 
weldier Sag unb 9?adht bte fofU 
itd)j!en Sftaudjwerfe #eti)iopten6 
brannten, an bete n. SRie 
burfte mtr jemanb wiber(pred)en, 
otme auf ber ©telle bejfraft gu 
werben. Seben Sag erfann man 
neue Suftbatfetten, urn mir ba$ 
Seben angenefym gu mad}en. 
2Cber ein SJBeib/ weld)e£ id) liebte, 
unb weld)e mid) md)t liebte, §at 
mid) empftnben laffen, baf? id) 
fetn @5ott bin 5 fte i)at mid) sers 
gtftet 5 id) bin nid)t mel)r. 



33ct btefer SRebe weinte ber 
33abt)lonter wie ein feigfyergiger 
9Xenfd), weld)en tie SKollufte 
tterraeid)lid)t fyaben, unb weldbet 
nid)t gewofynt ift, ftanbtjaft em 
Unglutf gu erttagen. §Bti if)m 
waren eintge ©flaoen, weld)e 
©fan, urn fein 2etd)enbegtabnif$ 
gu efyren, umgebrad)t fyatte. 
SOZerfur ijatte fte bem Charon 
nebfi ifyrem $6nige, bem fte auf 
(grben gebtent fatten, ubergeben, 
unb i^nen eine unum(d)ran!te 
©ewalt uber benfelben cerltetjen. 
£)iefe (Sllaoenfd)atten furd)teten 
ben ©cbatten Sftabopljargang nidit 
mel)r$ fte t>tclten it)n gefeffelt, 



I was, said this shade to 
him, Nabopharzan (Nebu- 
chadnezzar), king of proud 
Babylon. All the nations 
of the East trembled at the 
very sound of my name. I 
made the Babylonians wor- 
ship me in a marble temple, 
in which I was represented 
by a golden statue, before 
which they night and day 
burned the most precious 
perfumes of Ethiopia. Never 
did any one presume to con- 
tradict me, without being in- 
stantly punished. Every 
day they invented new di- 
versions in order to make 
life more pleasant to me. 
But a woman whom I loved, 
and who did not love me, 
made me very sensible that 
I was no god ; she poisoned 
me, and I am no more. 

While speaking thus, the 
Babylonian wept like a pusil- 
lanimous wretch, enervated 
by prosperity, and unaccus- 
tomed to bear misfortune 
with an undaunted resolu- 
tion. There were close by 
him some slaves, who had 
been put to death to grace 
his funeral. Mercury had 
delivered them up to Charon, 
together with their king, and 
had given them absolute 
power over this king whom 
they had served on earth. 
The shades of these slaves 
no longer feared the shade 



89 



unb ernriefen ujm bte gvaufamften 
23efd)tmpfungen. SRaboyfyavian 
jlurjte fid) mit bem ©eficfyt auf 
tie (5rbe> unb ri{$ fid) in etnem 
2Cnfall oon 2But& unb SSergrcetfc 
lung bie #aare auS. 2lbet 
(Sharon fagte §u ben ©flaoen: 
ferret ttjn bet ber £ette, reiget 
tyn roiber feinen S&illen in bte 
£of)e ; fogar ben Sroft fetne 
©cfyanbe gu serbergen foil er 
nidbt fyaben; alle ©djattcn bee 
(Stgp mujfen baoon skuge fetn, 
urn bte ©otter §u redbtferttgen/ 
roelcfye fo lange jugefefyen fyabin* 
bag biefer ©ottlofe auf ber (Srbe 
regierte. 



28 a I) r e n b biefer SKebe beS 
furd)tbaren @l)aron£ fiief* bte 
S5ar!e fdjon an bag Ufer oom 
Sf^etdie ^luto'fi. 2Cllc ©(fatten 
eitten fyerbet, urn btefen lebenbigen 
Sttenfdjen §u betrad)ten, weldjec 
mitten unter Un Sobten in ber 
SSarEe ftanb. 2(ber in bem 
2CugenblicB/ ate Selemad) ben 
gufj aufs Sanb fe^tc/ entflo^en 
fie/- gletd) ben ©d)atten ber Sftacfyt, 
srelcfye ber geringfte ©tral)l beS 
&age£itd)teS $erftreut. (Sfyavon, 
meld)er bem jungen ®rted)en etne 
nid)t fo run^eiige ©time unb 
rceniger nrilbe #ugen, rote fonjt bei 
it)mgett)5^niid)n?ar jetgte/ fagte §u 
ii)m : SSon ben ©ottern geltebter 
©terblidjer/ b a e5 btr sergbnnt 
ijr in ba$ SKetd) ber Sftadjt §u 
fommem roelcfyeS alien anbern 



of Nabopharzan ; they held 
him in chains, and insulted 
him in the most opprobrious 
manner. Nabopharzan threw 
himself fiat on his face upon 
the ground, tearing off his 
hair through excess of rage 
and desperation. But Charon 
said to the slaves : Pull him 
by his chain ; raise him up 
in spite of himself; he shall 
not have even the consola- 
tion of concealing his shame ; 
it must be seen by all the 
shades about the Styx, in 
order that they may bear 
witness of it, and justify the 
gods who have so long suf- 
fered this impious wretch to 
reign upon the earth. 

While the terrible Charon 
was holding this discourse, 
his boat reached the shore of 
Pluto's kingdom. All the 
ghosts came thronging to • 
view this living man who 
appeared in the boat among 
the dead ; but scarcely had 
Telemachus landed before 
they all flew away like the 
shades of night, which are 
dissipated by the first glimpse 
of day. Charon, with a 
brow less wrinkled, and eyes 
less fierce than usual, said to 
the young Greek : O mortal, 
favourite of the gods, since 
it is given to thee to enter 
the kingdom of night, inac- 
cessible to all living crea- 
tures, make haste and go 

i3 



90 



©tcrbltdjen unjugdnglid) ifi, f o 
ette/ b a t) t n gu get)en# w o t) i n 
bag ©djttffal bid) ruft. ©e^e 
burd) biefen bunfeln 28eg gum 
spaiafte beg glutei rceld)en bu 
auf feinem Sfyrone ftnben roirft 5 
er rcirb tir erlaubem an biejenu 
gen Drte gu getjeri/ beren @e= 
fyeimnig id) bir nid)t offenbaren 
barf. 

©ogleid) eitte Selemad) mit 
frarfen ©Written fort. 2Cllenu 
t?alben ftebjt er ©fatten a m ftd) 
t) e r flattern/ gabjlreicrjer alS bie 
©anbtorner am SJleerufer ; unb 
in bem ©ercufyte biefer unenb= 
licben SDRenge ergreift itm ein 
gottlicber ©d)aubeo bei 25etrad)= 
tung ter tiefen ©title biefer 
roeiten ©egenben. Seine £aare 
ftcauben ftd) empor, al$ er ftd) 
bem fdjroarjen 2Cufentt)aIt beS 
unbarmbjergtgen spiuto ndtjm 5 
er ffitjlt feine £me roanlen 5 bie 
©timme fetjlt tym, unb faum 
sermag er bem ©otte biefe S&orte 
gu fagen : ©ie fefyen, furdjts 
bare ©ottt)ett, ben©ot)n tes un= 
glucflicben UlpffeS 5 id) lomme 
©ie gu fragen, ob mein 23ater in 
3t}r IHctd) t)erabgefttegen/ ober ob 
ix nod) auf ber (Erbe ijl. 



|Huto fag auf fetnem Sfyrone 
t>on (£benr,olg. ©ein ©eftd)t 
war blag unb emit/ feine #ugen 
rcaren r;ot)l unb funfelnb, feine 
©time rungelig unb brofyenb. 
£er linbM eineS Sebenben rear 



whither the destinies call 
thee ; go through this gloomy 
path to the palace of Pluto, 
whom thou wilt find on his 
throne. He will permit 
thee to enter those places, 
the secrets of which I am 
not allowed to disclose. 



Telemachus immediately 
advances with hasty steps ; 
on all sides he sees multi- 
tudes of fluttering ghosts, 
countless as the grains of 
sand on the sea-shore ; and, 
in the hurry of this innu- 
merable crowd, he is seized 
with a divine horror, on ob- 
serving the profound silence 
of these vast regions. His 
hair stands on end when he 
reaches the dismal abode of 
the pitiless Pluto. His knees 
tremble, his voice fails him ? 
and it is not without great 
difficulty that he is able to 
pronounce these words : You 
see, O terrible deity, the son 
of the unhappy Ulysses ; I 
come to enquire of you whe- 
ther my father is descended 
into your dominions, or whe- 
ther he is still wandering 
upon the earth. 

Pluto was seated on a 
throne of ebony ; his com- 
plexion was pale and severe ; 
his eyes were hollow and 
sparkling ; his face wrinkled 
and threatening. The sight 



91 



tym \mfya$tr nrie bag Sicfyt Me 
2£ugen beqenigen &t)iere htUU 
bigt/ n>eld)e gewofynt ftnb/ nur 
beg ?Rad)tg ifyre ©d)tupfn?infel 
gu uerlaffen. 2Cn feiner @eitc 
fafj ^roferptna, tt?etdbe aUetn feine 
SSitc£e auf fid) 309/ unb iretcbe 
etn wentg fein #er§ 511 miibern 
fcbien 5 fte genofi einer tmmer 
erneuerten @d)6n^ett ; aber fte 
fdjten mit tfyrer gdttltdben 2Cn* 
mutt) Don ttjrem ©atten etroaS 
partes unb ©raufameS oeretntgt 
SU fyaben. 

2(m guffc beS £f)rone§ roar 
ber blaffc unb Der$et)renbe Sob 
mit feiner fd)arfen @enfe> rceld)e 
er unabldjTtg treble. Urn it>n 
Return flcgen bic fdpaqen 
<Sorgen$ bag graufame 9tttfs~ 
trauen; tie ftetg Don SSlut tries 
fenbe unb mit SBunben bebectte 
!Kad)fud)t 3 ber ungerecfyre £afj $ 
ber ftd) felbfr aernagenbe ©ei§ $ 
tie SSergweiftung, rcelcrje ftd) mtc 
ifyren etgnen £dnben gerfXeifcftt 5 
ber trat).imi£ige, alteg umfturs 
5enbe ©fyrgetg 5 bte 23errdtl)eret/ 
roelcfye ftd) mit SSlut trdnlen mill/ 
aber ftd) bee burd) fte angejrifte= 
ten UebelS nid)t erfreuen lann 5 
ber 9Zeib/ tt)eld)er fein tobtlicfyeS 
©tft urn ftd) fyerum fprugt unb 
roeldjer, in feiner Dt)nmad)t gu 
fci)abcn, rafenb roirb 5 tie ©otts 
loftgleit/ trelc^e ftd) felbft einen 
bobenlofen 2Cbgrunb grdbt, rcortn 
fte ftd) otjne £offnung jturgt 5 bte 
fd)euplid)en@efpenfter5 tie &rug= 
gejtatten/ roeld)e bte Sobten Dor* 
ftellen/ urn bte £ebenbigen gu 



of a living man was as odious 
to him 'as the light is offen- 
sive to the eyes of those 
creatures which never leave 
their hiding places but dur- 
ing the night. By his side 
appeared Proserpine, who 
alone attracted his attention, 
and seemed to soften his 
heart. She enjoyed a beauty 
that was always fresh ; but to 
her divine graces was added 
a certain severity which she 
borrowed from her husband. 
At the foot of the throne 
w r as pale and devouring 
death, with his sharp-edged 
scythe, which he was con- 
tinually whetting. Around 
him flew black cares, cruel 
jealousies, revenge reeking 
with blood, and covered with 
wounds ; unjust hatreds ; 
avarice gnawing itself ; des- 
pair tearing itself with its 
own hands ; wild ambition, 
that overturns every thing 
and puts it into combustion ; 
treason that feeds upon blood, 
and cannot enjoy the fruits 
of its own wickedness ; envy 
that pours forth her deadly 
venom around her, and grows 
furious when she is unable 
to do any harm ; impiety 
digging a bottomless pit, and 
desperately throwing herself 
into it ; hideous spectres, 
phantoms that invest them- 
selves in the shapes of the 
dead to frighten the living ; 



92 



erfcfyrecfen $ tie fcfyrecfenben 
Zxaume, unb bte <Sd)lafloftgfett/ 
weld)e zhzn fo fdjrecBltd^ ift, a(S 
bte traurtgen Srdume. 2Clle 
btefe Srauergejialten umfd)web~ 
ten ben ftol§en spiuto unb wfa 
fuilten ben ^alafr, weldjen et 
bewofynte. 

(§r antwortete btm Selemad) 
mtt t)ol)ler ©timme/ wooon bet: 
©runb beS (SrebuS gittcrtc : 
hunger ©terblid)er# bte ©ditcf* 
[ale fyaben btr erlaubt/ btefe ben 
@d)atten gefyetltgte ©tdtte §u 
oerle|en 5 folge betnera t>ot)en 
6>4id!falej id) will btr ntd)tfagen/ 
mo betn SSater tft ; genug, bu 
t)aft bte grettyett/ itjn auf^ufudjcn. 
£a er auf ber drbe &ontg war, 
fo fannjr bu etner (Setts btejentge 
©egenb beS fdjwarjen SartaruS 
burrtwanbern, wo tie gottlofen 
£6mge gefrraft, auf ber anbern 
©cite bie eit)fdtfd)en geibet/ wo 
bte guten £6ntge belofyntwerben. 
2Clletn son t)ter au$ iannft bu 
nur $u ben eit)fdifd)en gelbetn 
geiangen, wenn bu guoor burd) 
ben SartaruS gegangen biji$ cite 
unb DCrtof metn Stetd). 



frightful dreams ; and sleep- 
lessness quite as dreadful as 
frightful dreams. All these 
direful forms surrounded the 
stern Pluto, and filled the 
palace in which he dwelt. 



He answered Telemachus 
with a hollow voice, that 
made the bottom of Erebus 
tremble : Young mortal, the 
fates have allowed thee to 
violate this sacred sanctuary 
of the shades : follow thy 
high destiny ; I will not tell 
thee where thy father is : it 
is enough thou art free to 
go and look for him. Since 
he was a king upon earth, 
thou hast but to traverse on 
the one hand that part of the 
gloomy Tartarus where the 
wicked kings are punished, 
and on the other, the Ely- 
sian fields, where the good 
kings are rewarded. But 
thou canst not go hence into 
the Elysian fields before thou 
hast passed through Tartarus ; 
make haste thither, and get 
out of my empire. 

Rule. — German propositions are usually placed before 
the case which they govern, and a few compound verbs, 
formed with the particle mif/ sometimes receive the augment 
ge at the beginning of the past participle, sometimes in the 
middle, and sometimes not at all. 

(gogletd) fdjten Setemad) Telemachus seems instant- 
burd) biefe leeren unb ly to fly through the void 
unermepltdjen Sftdume gletcfyfam and immense spaces, so much 



93 



$u (Regent fo fefyr serlangte ttjn 
$u mijfen, ob er feinen S3ater 
fefyen roetbe, unb aud) fid) a u 
ber f d) e u g (id) e n ©egens 
roart be$ £t)rannen §u entfernen/ 
rcelcber Sebenbige unb Sobte in 
(gcfyrecfen fyalt. Grnbltd) be? 
merit er ben fdjroarjen SartaruS 
fciemlid) nafye b e i fid) ; ein 
bicfer fdjwacjer Sftaud) jrieg bars 
au$ empor, beffen Derpefteter 
©erud) tobten nwrbe, roenn er 
jtd) i n bem fSSorjnorte bee Seben? 
ben oerbrettete* biefer Sftaud) 
bebecfte etnen (Strom con 
geuer unb glammennrirbel/ 
bejfen ©etofe, gXeicr) bemjemgen, 
meldjeS bte umgeftumfren glufte 
mad)en/ rcenn fie »on ben 
f) 6 d) fr e n ©ipfeln ber geifen 
in ben tiefjien tfbgvunb (iurgeii/ 
oerurfac^en/ ba£ man an btefen 
traurtgen Oertern nidjts beurltd) 
$6ren !ann. 

(Snblid) erbitcfte Selemad) ^k 
R&mQt/ it>etcf)e bejhregen oer* 
bammt rourben/ weil fie it)re 
SOladjt mifibraucbt fatten. 
li u f ber etnen ©eite tyfelt ifynen 
etne rdd)enbe ©trafgottfyeit etnen 
(Spiegel uoo ber itjnen bie gan$e 
©cfyeujHtcfyfeit itjrer Safter &eigte. 
#ter fafyen fie unb fonnten nidjt 
unterlajfen ju fefjen tyre grobe 
©itelfeit/ roetd)e n a d) ben Ids 
d)erlid)(Ien £obfprud)en gtertg 
i)a[d)te $ tyre £drte g e g c n 
bte 2Dftenfd)en/ roeld)e fie fatten 
giucflid) mad)en follen* tyre 
©efityllofigfeit fur bte Sugenb, 
tyre 2£ngjr/ bie SBa^r^eit $u 



does he long to know if he 
shall see his father, and to 
get out of the horrible pre- 
sence of the tyrant who holds 
both the living and the dead 
in awe. He presently finds 
himself near dark Tartarus ; 
a thick black smoke ascended 
thence, the pestilential stench 
of which would have brought 
on instant death with it, had 
it reached the abodes of the 
living. This smoke sat upon 
a river of flaming fire, the 
noise of which, like that of 
the most impetuous cataracts, 
falling from the summit of 
the highest rocks into the 
bottomless pit, made it im- 
possible for those who en- 
tered these dismal places to 
hear anything distinctly. 



At length Telemachus 
perceived the kings who were 
punished for having abused 
their power. On one hand 
a vindictive Fury held up to 
them a mirror which showed 
tham their vices in all their 
deformity. There they saw 
and were obliged to see their 
fulsome vanity, which gree- 
dily swallowed down the 
grossest flattery ; their obdu- 
racy towards men, whom they 
ought to have made happy ; 
their insensibility to virtue ; 
their dread to hear the truth $ 
their negligence, their sloth^ 



94 



!>5ren; t^re 9tetgung $u meter* 
trddjttgen unb fd)metd)terifd)en 
3Xenfd)en ; tljre 9tad)ldfugfett $ 
tfyre SSScid)tid)fett ; tfyre @orgs 
loftgfett* tfyren un§eitigen 2£rg= 
tt»ot?n 5 ifyren Uebermutl) unb 
tfjre ubermdfnge tyxa&tlkbtt 
tt)eld}e ba§ SSerberben bee SSolfer 
serurfad)te ; it)re (Sfyrfudjt, ein 
roentg 3Sut)m burd) bag £3lut 
tl)re 23urger §u erfaufen $ enb* 
ltd) tl)re ©raufamfett, rceldje 
tdglid) neue Sffioilufte u n t e r 
ben &£>rdnen unb ber Ser^eif- 
lung fo meter Unglucf lichen aufc 
fud)te. £)fyne #uft)6ren fatjen 
fie |td) in btefem Spiegel 5 fte 
fanben ftdb grauem>oller unb 
fd)eu6lid)er, a\$ bte burd) ben 
SSetlerop^on beftegte (Sfytmdre, 
ober alS bte burd) ben £erf uteS 
erlegte £erndifd)e #r)ber/ felbft 
al§ ben (SerberuS/ roeldjer a u $ 
fetnen brei gdfynenben SKadben em 
fd)tr>arseg unb gtfttgeg SSlut au&= 
fpetet, n?etd)e6 baS gan^e ©efd)led)t 
ber auf ber @rbe iebenben 
9ttenfd)en wpejlen lonnte. 

3u gtetd)er 3ett nneberfyotte 
ifynen eine gurie auf ber anbern 
®eite mit Skrfyofynung alle Sob* 
fprudje/ treldie tyrten il)re 
@d)meid)ler in intern Seben ge* 
geben fatten/ unb l)telt it)nen 
etnen anbern (Spiegel or, worin 
jte ftd) fo fafyen/ al$ tie <&d)meu 
d)elei fte gefd)iltert £atte. £)te 
(gntgegenfteltung btefer groet ftd) 
fo tt>tberfpred)enben ©emdlbe 
trar tie Strafe fur ifyre (Sttelfeit. 
SDton bemerfte, bap unter btefen 



their misplaced jealousy, their 
pride, their excessive pomp 
built upon the ruin of their 
people ; their ambition to 
purchase a little vain glory 
with the blood of their sub- 
jects ; in fine, their cruelty, 
which every day hunts about 
for new pleasures amidst the 
tears and distresses of so 
many unhappy wretches. In 
this mirror they incessantly 
beheld themselves ; they found 
themselves more horrible and 
more monstrous than the 
Chimera which was van- 
quished by Bellerophon, or 
the Lernean hydra, destroy- 
ed by Hercules, or than by 
Cerberus himself, though he 
disgorges from his three 
hideous throats a black and 
venomous gore, capable of 
infecting the whole race of 
mortals living on the earth. 



At the same time, on the 
other hand, another Fury in- 
sultingly repeated to them 
the encomiums which their 
flatterers had bestowed upon 
them while alive, and pre- 
sented to them another mir- 
ror, in which they saw 
themselves as flattery had 
depicted them. The oppo- 
sition of these two portraits, 
which were so contrary, was 
the punishment of their va- 



95 



Jtontgen biejentgen am gottlo* 
feflen rcaren/ benen man bet 
Ceb^eiten bte erfyabenften £cb= 
fprucfye gegeben tyatte, \v e t i bte 
SBofen mefyr gefurdjtct rcerben 
qIS bte 5Ked)tfd)affenen/ unb roett 
fie mit ber grofjeften Unoerfd)d mr* 
t)ett bte mebertrad)tigen ©d)met= 
djeleten ber £)td)ter unb SKebner 
tyrer 3eit forbern. 



nity. It was observed that 
the most wicked of these 
kings were those who during 
their lives had received the 
most exalted praises, because 
the bad are dreaded more 
than the good, and shame- 
lessly exact the sordid and 
nauseous flatteries of the 
poets and orators of their 
time. 



CHAPTER IV. 
FAMILIAR AND IDIOMATICAL PHRASEOLOGY. 



I. 



(£§ urirb ernftfyaft. 

@$ friert mid) an ben £cmben. 
(56 fragt fid)/ ob fie fommen 

rotrb. 
SDton fagt/ fie fct e$ getr>efen. 
& f ojiet 3fynen nur em SBort. 

©6 wirb geflopft. 

S&ir rcerben fetjen/ ba£ man ii)m 

bte @d)ulb gibt. 
©ie mad)en eg recfyt. 
©ie meint e§ gut. 
<Ste roollen e£ babet beroenten 

lajfen. 
©ie fangen e§ &u fyod) an. 
@f)r gibt Stynen nid)t nad)$ er 

gtbt niemanben nad). 



The affair is becoming se- 
rious. 

My hands are cold. 

It is doubtful whether she 
will come. 

They say it was she. 

You have only to say one 
word. 

Some one knocks. 

We shall see that he will be 
blamed for it. 

You do well. 

Her intention is good. 

They will leave it as it is. 

Their bearing is too haughty. 

He does not give in to you ; 

he gives in to nobody. 



96 



3d) gtaube nid)t, baf$ ©te ben 
23or§ug oor itym fyaben rcerben. 
@§ tft md)t alleg ©otb roaS glanjt, 
(Sg mag fetn, rcie eg will. 
@S gilt 3^r 2eben. 
(5§ betrtfft ifyr SSermogen. 
SBcnn e§ bed) metn greunb ware ! 
Sic tooften eS eud) gebenfen. 

3d) rcerbe e§ nic^t lange mad)en. 



I do not think that you will 
get the better of him. 

All that glitters is not gold. 

Be that as it may. 

Your life is at stake. 

Her fortune is at stake. 

If it were but my friend ! 

They will remember you for 
it. 

I will not detain you long. 



II. 



©ie fyaben e§ getroffen. 
©te ftnb md)t red)t baran. 
©te f)at eg nid)t getroffen. 
£Bte fie ^ufafyren ! 



You have guessed it. 
They have not got hold of it. 
She has not guessed it. 
What a rate they drive at i 



£)aS ift ntd)t mefyr auSju^alten. They can hold out no longer. 



III. 



©ie fyaben 3fynen oorgefd)roa§t. 
©ie roiffen ntd)t, wie ©ie e§ 

anfangen follen. 
©ie l)aben ettr>a§ barunter. 

©te meinen e$ aufrtd)tig. 
©te nefymen e3 gu genau. 
SCRan muj* eg nid)t fo genau 

nefymen, 
2)a tjaben ©te e§. 
3d) fonnte mid) nidjt brein 

finben. 
@S foil eud) md)t gettngen. 
(5c oerfat)rt ubel mit ifym. 
©te finb fyanbgemetn geworben. 

(5r tjat einen ©roll auf mid). 



They have told you a story. 

You know not how to set 
about it. 

They mean more than they 
say. 

They have no evil intention. 

You are too particular. 

We must not be so particu- 
lar. 

You have hit it. 

I could not make it out. 

You shall be set at defiance. 

He uses him ill. 

They have had a serious 

quarrel. 
He owes me a grudge. 



97 



2)ag ©lucf nrill 3t)nen tooty. 
£Btr ftnb ecfd)5pft 5 toil lonnen 

nid)t mefyt fort. 
@g iji aug mtt i^ncn. 
(gg foftc/ rcag eg rootle. 
£Bo ftnb ©te geblieben ? 
SBte rourfce eg urn eud) jieljen, 

roenn fie eudb ntd)t get)otfen 

fatten ? 
£te Sett rcurb leijren/ mag baran 

tfr. 
SSoUen ©te eg babet beroenben 

Xaffen ? 



Fortune smiles upon you. 
We are exhausted, we can 

hold out no longer. 
They are done for. 
Let it cost what it may. 
Where did you Leave off? 
What would you have done. 

if they had not assisted 

you ? 
Time will bring 1 it to light. 

Are you willing to leave it 
as it is ? 



IV. 



©te fyaben tmmer @elb babet 

etngebugt. 
©te roottcn mit rcag rcetfj ma- 

djen. 
©te ftnb fd)6n/ abzx fte btlben 

fid) $u mel etn. 

23et btefen SBocten. 

©te tjaben eg mtt gleif gettjan. 

3d) i)abe eg aug guter 2£bftd)t 

9ctt;an. 
©te fyaben eg nid)t aug bofer 2(b* 

ftd)t get^an. 
©te rourben eg ntd)t aug bofer 

2Cbftd)t getfyan tyaben. 
3d) gefye in tie ©tabt. 
©te get)t nad) ber ©tabt. 
£)urd) tneleg SSttten ijl eg ung 

gelungen, 



You have always lost money 
by it. 

They wish to impose upon 
me. 

They are handsome, but they 
think too much of them- 
selves. 

At these words. 

They have done it on pur- 
pose. 

I have done it with a good 
intention. 

They have not done it with 
a bad intention. 

They would not have done 
it with a bad intention. 

I am going to town. 

She is going to town. 

By dint of much earnest n- 
treaty we have succeeded. 



98 



©te rccrben tfyn an fetnem &tetbe 

fennen, rcenn fte U)n fefyen. 
#n ber 2Crt, rote er fprtdjt. 

5^ai$ fetnem ©efcfymacf, nacfy 
fetner Sftetnung/ follte man, 
&c. 

2Cuf bte SSitte ber (Sinmofyner. 

©te tytelten tfyn betm 2Bort. 
©tc ^)aben ftd) baruber bet mtr 
beflagt. 



You will know him by his 
coat when you see him. 

By the manner in which he 
speaks. 

According to his taste, ac- 
cording to his opinion, one 
ought, &c. 

At the request of the inha- 
bitants. 

They took him at his word. 

They have complained to me 
about it. 



V. 



(§6 fdttt in Me 2Cugen. 

©te fyat ifyn in sparis lennen ge* 

lernt. 
3d) l)abe fte auf Mefer Sftetfe 

lennen geternt. 
(Sr iricb balb unter <Segel getyen. 
@ic fyaben unter fretem #tmmel 

gefd)tafen. 
Unter bem® fatten bteferSBdume. 
@;r §at e§ unter bem Conner 

ber ^anonen gefcfyrteben. 

©ie be! ommt eS nidjt unter btreu 

pig @5utneen. 
2Bir ftnb unter ben ^rtegSun* 

tutyen. 

©d&rttt sor ©djrttt. 

SBerfbfylener SQSetfe. 

Unbebacfytfamenretfe. 

@te roofynen am (Snbe ber ©trape. 



It strikes the eye. 

She made his acquaintance 

in Paris. 
I became acquainted with 

her during that journey. 
He will sail soon. 
They have slept in the open 

air. 
In the shade of these trees. 
He has written it in the 

midst of the noise of the 

guns. 
She will not get it for less 

than thirty guineas. 
We are in the midst of the 

tumult of war. 
Step by step. 
Clandestinely. 
Inconsiderately. 
They live at the end of the 

street. 



99 



3$ fyabe eg son 2lnfang big §um 

Qjrnbe gelefen. 
£)er Sob mad)t 2CtIem etn (Snbe. 



I have read it from begin- 
ning to end. 

Death puts an end to every- 
thing. 



VI. 



©te ntmmt eg §u #er§en. 
©te arbetten urn tie SBette. 
©te ftel tym um ben £alg. 
@g taugt §u md)t§. 
©te l)aben tyn jur £t)ure tytnauS 

gercorfen. 
@r $at ©dfte * 5 um sflfctttageflen. 
©te lommen §ur recfyten Sett. 
<5r l)at eg §ur Ungeit getfyan. 

©enfrecfyt, con oben ^jerab. 

Unabfe()bar. 

Grr §at eg bud)f!dbltd) uberfefct. 

SStelletdjt roerben ©te eg fur gut 

ftnben. 
34 bjalte eg fur gut. 
3<3) muf tie geber ergretfen. 
2)er 2Cr$t fyat tym bie «BRUd)fur 

oerorbnet. 
Gsr r;at etne bofe £anb> fetne 

©d)tt?efrer $at etnen bofen 

ginger/ unb fein Setter t)Ot 

bofe 2lugen. 
(Sr lift ftd) alleg gefallen. 
3^) laffenur alleg gefallen. 
2Ber !ann bafur ? er $at eg ofyne 

metn Stiffen gettyan. 
©te oerjle^t ben gertngften 

SGBinf. 



She lays it to heart. 

They work emulously. 

She fell upon his neck. 

It is good for nothing. 

They have turned him out 
of doors. 

He has company to dinner. 

You come at the right time. 

He has done it at the wrong 
time. 

Perpendicularly down. 

Beyond the reach of sight. 

He has made a literal trans- 
lation of it. 

Perhaps you will think well 
of it. 

I think it good. 

I must write. 

The physician has ordered 
him to live upon milk. 

He has a bad hand, his sis- 
ter has a bad finger, and 
his cousin has sore eyes. 

He agrees to anything. 

I am agreeable to anything. 

Who can help it ? he did it 

unknown to me. 
A hint is sufficient for her. 



100 



$la&) bem £eben, nad) ber 5flatur 
malen. 



To paint from nature. 



VII. 



2Bit fyaben ttjn im ^tnaufgefyen 

gefefyen. 
2Cuf £)eutfdy auf granaoftfd)/ 

fagt man. 
Set tjcltem Sage. 
©6 ftefyt nid)t me$t bet tfym, e§ 

gu tfyun. 
@§ fie^t ntd)t mefyr. in t^rer 

50lad)t eg gu tfyun. 
Sag u)n in Sftufye. 
©te retfen mtt ber 9po$. 
2Btr retfen nad) granlretd). 
©te malen mtt garben. 
©ic tanjen ntd)t nad) tern Salt. 
Sum ©lucr. 
3um Unglucf. 

©te fyat e§ au§ ©pott gefagt. 
SJtein greunb §at e§ au£ ®pa$ 

gefagt. 
©te t)aben e§ au§ ©d)er§ ge- 

fagt. 
(Sr befd)tror mtd) barum bet 

unferer atten greunbfdjaft. 



We saw him as he went up. 

In German, in French, they 

say. 
In broad daylight. 
It no longer depends on him 

to do it. 
It is no longer in her power 

to do it. 
Leave him alone. 
They travel post. 
We are going to France. 
They paint in colours. 
They do not dance in time. 
Happily, fortunately. 
Unhappily, unfortunately. 
She said it ironically. 
My friend said it for fun. 

They said it in jest. 

He conjured me, by our 
long-standing friendship. 



VIII. 

(§6 gerfallt in ©tucfe. 
(£r leibet eg urn be$ grtebeng 
Allien. 

3d) $abz e£ auS ©runben get£)an. 



It is falling to pieces. 

He endures for the sake of 



2£egen etne§ gertngen gefyletS bin 
id) terurtfyeiit recrben. 



peace. 
I had good reasons for doing 

it. 
I am condemned for a trilling 

fault. 



101 



@tn f8aUt fyut $tete$ fewer 

Winter: rcegen. 
liefer SJlann tyat S3tele§ urn 

fetner Winter nrillen getfyan. 

(Sr $at etnen 9£ot$pfenmg auf* 

gefpart. 
6r mfprtcfit golbene 23erge. 

©te ganfen urn etnen ©trofc 

fyalm. 
@S ijl ntd^t gut o$ne gltnte auf 

tie Sagb ju gefyen. 
<5r §tef)t mtt etner langen Sftafe 

ab. 
©te wollen ftd) tyetmlid) baocn 

ftetylen. 
(Sr bewunbert fid) felbftgefdlltg. 

£)a fann man auf ben erften 
SBtnf i)in bebtent fetn. 

(Sr will ben Sftagel auf bem $opf 
treffen. 



A father does many things 

for the sake of his children. 
This man has done many 

things for the sake of his 

children. 
He has laid something up 

against a rainy day. 
He promises mountains and 

wonders. 
They are quarrelling about 

a straw. 
It is not good to go to sea 

without provisions. 
He returns ashamed. 

They want to leave their 

creditors in the lurch. 
He admires himself in his 

feathers. 
There you may be served with 

the greatest promptitude. 
He would fain take the hare 

by the scut. 



IX. 



(St wagt fid) an ba$ Unmogltdje. 

@r ttrirb @te auf ben jungften 

Sag uertroften. 
@te tt>ollen mid) auf ben 9ttm= 

mertag t>erwetfen. 
<£z §at mtt etner $tappe $wet 

gttegen erfdjlagen. 
<£v wtyfyxt feine @inf unfte §um 

ooraus. 



He wants to take the moon 

by the horns. 
He will pay you when two 

Sundays come together. 
They want to pay me at the 

latter Lammas. 
He has killed two birds with 

one stone. 
He spends his money before 

he gets it. 

k 3 



102 



2Cu6 tem Sfagen in tie Sraufe 

fommen. 
ffiStr gtngen in ber £)ammerung 

aug. 
(5r ^at e§ t^m cor bem 9Jlaut 

megneljmen wotten. 
(§r trdgt auf betben (Sdjultern. 

(ginen anbcrn tic ginger set* 

brennen lajfen. 
@r gtbt ben 2(rm fur tzn ginger 

*)UT. 

(gr will tmmer Mmmei fpalten- 

(£r tjt ein SBortftauber. 
@r fprid)t au§ einem fyofyen Sone. 
(Sr erjurnte fid). 
$£tr tuollen bag @lucf betm 
<Sd)opfe ergretfen. 



To fall out of the frying- 
pan into the fire. 
We went out about dusk. 

He wished to supplant him. 

He keeps fair with two par- 
ties. 

To get chestnuts out of the 
fire with the cat's paw. 

He is penny wise and pound 
foolish. 

He is always wanting to 
split. 

He is very particular. 

He talks largely. 

He got into a passion. 

Let us seize the opportunity, 



X. 



@c.ft>eijj ftd) weber §u ratten 

nod) gu Ijelfen. 
3d) xoz\% mit roefcer §u ratljen 

nod) 5U fyelfen. 
^ie roerben ftd) rccber §u ratten 

nod) $u tjelfen nriffen. 
©te roufjten ftd) rceber $u ratten 

nod) gu tjelfen. 
Q?r beu>irttjet/ nne e§ nur ben 

?$unb gelujfet. 
SQHt £vo§en unb ^ocfyen uerlan- 

gen. 
@ie fangen roegen eineS $litytt 

£anbel an. 



He does not know which 

way to turn himself. 
I know not which way to 

turn myself. 
You will not know which 

way to turn yourself. 
They did not know which 

way to turn themselves. 
He treats his friends nobly. 

To seek with hue and cry. 

They are beginning to quar- 
rel about nothing. 



103 

©ie §aben tfjm bte 9Wtf)e etnge= You have been hard upon 

tf)an. him. 

©ie fyaben u)m fein ©efyetmmfj You have pumped him. 

abgelccft. 

©ie rcetten t$m fein ©efjetmnif* They will sift him. 

ablccfen. 

2Bie meinen @ie tfym fein ©e= How do you intend to sift 

tyeimmf ab^ulccfen? him ? 

STcan $at t^m unter tie 2Crme They have put him into the 

gegrtffen. right way for preferment, 

©etnc greunbe ftnb tfym an ba$ His friends have backed 

Sfab gefianben. him. 

©ie bat ifyn in ben 2Cpri( ae= She has made an April fool 

fducft. of him. 

(St Will fte in ben 2Cprtl fdncfen. He intends to make an April 

fool of her. 

©ie tjat tym %&uvft ttttber 2£urft She has given him a Row- 

gegeben. land for an Oliver. 

2Bir tvolkn tym SBurjr nnber Let us give him a Rowland 

2&ur|t geben. for an Oliver, 

©te f)at u)m &u fdjaffen gemad)t. She has led him a pretty 

dance. 

(£§ ift ifytn ubel mtfgefptelt He has paid for his whistle. 

roorben. 

©etne (Mefjrfctmf tit ift il;m au&= He is at his wit's end. 

gegangen. 

©eleven prebigen tt>c£en. To carry coals to Newcastle. 

(Sr mufs ftdj unter bte SJome^ He is obliged to mix with 

men mtfdjen. the herd. 

SSBir n?oIIen un£ unter bte SSorne^ Let us mix with the herd. 

men mtfdjen. 

©te fyat ein getduftgeS $>3tanbs She has a good clapper. 

frucf. 

Sic fprttfjt roie etn SSuftletn. She has an oily tongue. 

dt bleibt fiumm trie etn gifty. He cannot say a word. 



104 



@ic btteben jtummrcte eingtfd). 
9Xan mu£ tynen 2CUe§ oorlauen. 

£a§ ©la§ §at tfynen Me gunge 

gelofet, 
£)a§ ®ta$ tyat mtr tie gunge 

ntd^t gelofet. 
£)a$ ©las fjatte tym tie gunge 

geldfet. 
(Sr laft ftd) tie £aut uber bte 

£)f)ten §ief)en. 
3^) lafT^ wtc nid)t tie #aut 

uber bte £)l)ren §tefyen. 
2Ber tr-urbe ftd) bte £aut uber 

bte £)f)ren §iet)en loffen ? 
(£r fyat roeber ©efcfytcf nod) @e= 

lent. 
(Sr ift im <Sd)tafe retd) gercorben. 

(S3 war etn UnglucBtag fur tfyn. 
©te trenbet alle erftnnltdjen 

sflRittel ba^u an. 
SCRan tyat tf)n bet ber SKafe f)er* 

umgefufyrt. 
(Ste it)trb it;n bet ber Sftafe f)er= 

umfufyren. 
(Sr f)at £aar taffen ntujfen. 



©ie rcerben £aar laffen muffen. 



<§ie n>etj3, rao e§ Ijangt unb langt. 



They were not able to say a 
word. 

You are obliged to mince 
everything with them. 

Drinking has made them 
eloquent. 

Drinking has not made me 
eloquent. 

Drinking has made him elo- 
quent. 

He suffers himself to be in- 
sulted with impunity. 

I do not suffer myself to be 
insulted with impunity. 

Who would suffer himself to 
be insulted with impunity? 

He has neither talent nor 
tact. 

His fortune came while he 
was asleep. 

He has trod upon a nettle. 

She tries every thing that 
she can think of. 

They have made a fool of 
him. 

She will make a fool of him. 

He has been obliged to leave 
some of his feathers be- 
hind him. 

You will be obliged to leave 
some of your feathers be- 
hind. 

She knows the ground per- 
fectly. 



105 



@te leben son bet £anb tn§ They live from hand to 

§Kout. mouth. 

2)aS fcf)tcft fid) »ic cine gauft That rhymes like mountain 



auf etn 2Cug. 



and mole-hill. 



XL 



You spend your labour in 

vain. 
Nothing escapes his obser- 
vation. 
He is like a rat in straw. 
He gazes with open mouth 

at crows. 
He laughs without knowing 
what at. 
STcan ft'efyt ntd)t wo er ijtnaug He is above any man's reach. 

mill. 
St lafjt fid) md)t betfommen. 



gie brefdjen leete§ <5tto§. 

<Sr fiefyt wk etn (Sperber. 

(gr tft trie ber SSo^et tm £anf. 
<5t fyat sflftoulaffen fctt. 

Gst Iad)t in ben Sag f)tnetn. 



@3 itegt etne gatte bafytntet. 

<£§ gtbt tseber lalt nocb roarm. 
(gr t)at £>immel unb #6lle in 

SBercegung gefegt. 
©te fe$en £immel unb £6lle in 

23en;egung, 
@ie x>erge^)t oor Ungebutb. 
©te urtfyetten baoon in ben Sag 

tyinein. 
£)aoon tmtb man if)tn ba§ 9ftaui 

fauber fatten. 
(Sr nrirb einen bofen Seumunb 

fyaben. 
©te i)at etnen bSfen Seumunb. 
(gt iji belannt une ber bunte 

$unb. 



He does not expose his cha- 
racter. 

There is some mystery in 
the case. 

It is perfectly harmless. 

He has left no stone un- 
turned. 

They leave no stone un- 
turned. 

She is pining away. 

You judge of it by guess. 

They will not allow him to 

put his nose into it. 
He will be in bad repute. 

She is in bad repute. 
He is as well known as the 
public crier. 



106 

(£6 t# nod) nid)t alter Sage There will be more evenings 

2C6enb. than this. 

£er lefcte l)at nod) ntd)t gefd)of= There is something else to 

fen. come yet. 

©ie meif? ten SCRdufen §u rtdjten. She is no fool, 

©ie l)aben etnen (Stretch nad) You have given us a speci- 

3l)cer 2Ccr gefptelt. men of your skill, 

©ie l)aben tfyn in ten £acntfd) You have unhinged him. 

gejagt. 

©ie l)aben ifym ba$ ?0laul ges You have silenced him. 

ffapft 

£)a$ geuec ift bet tf)ra balb im He soon takes fire. 

Sage. 

Sttan §at i&m nidfts gelaffen. They have left him nothing. 

Sic tt>icb tf)m md)ts ubctg (ajfen. She will oblige him to dine 

with Duke Humphrey. 

XII. 

3d) fyabt U)m fetn $aac ge= I have not hurt him. 

frumrat. 

(S3 foil tyt fetn £aac gefcummt She shall not be hurt. 

roecben. 

G£§ ift fetn gute§ £aac an U)m. He is a good for nothing 

fellow. 

©m fyaben £aare auf ben 3al)nen. They have some spirit. 

G£r if! mtt £aut unb £aac sees He is irretrievably lost. 

loren. 

©te fragt nid)t etn ^)aar bac^ She does not care for it. 

nad). 

©ie §at fetn £aar con i|rer She is not a bit like her 

flutter. mother. 

(Sc fdte£t auf etn v£aac. He is an excellent shot. 

©te tceffen ba$ gtel auf ein You are a capital marksman. 

#aar. 

(E§ ty&ngt an etnem #aac. It only hangs by a slender 

thread. 



107 



£>a£ mad)t fctn @d)tdBfal urn 

fetn #aar anberS. 
(Sie toerben etn £aar bartn 

ftnben. 
(Sr fyat etn #aar bartn geftmben. 

(Sie toerben md)t etn #aar con 

tfyrem S^edjte roetd)en. 
SSet etnem £aat toare fte urn tyt 

£eben gefommen. 



@r gtetyt etnen SBetoetS bet ten 
£aaren. 



That does not alter his con- 
dition in the least. 

You will be disappointed in 
your expectation. 

He has not succeeded so well 
as he expected. 

They will not give up a jot 
of their right. 

She has had a very narrow 
escape for her life. — She 
was within a hair's breadth 
of being killed. 

He uses far-fetched argu- 
ments. 



(Sr tttetd)t Me (Segel etn. 

Gsc jiefyt mtt etner ellenlangeii 

9lafc ab. 
@ie ftnb mtt enter etlenlangen 

Sfafe abge 5 ogen. 
©te fud)r, wag tfyr sor ber S^afc 

tfegt. 

(Sr mif?t#nbere nadb fetner (Slle. 



<Ste toeig md)t, too fte ber ©d^ur; 

brucft. 
©ie *)at frumme ginger, 
©ie fyaben letn Sota baran ges 

madjt. 
(Sr gef)t totlltg tn§ geuer. 
(£t tft etne etjrltd)e £aut. 
©etn Setter t>at etnen ©parren 
%\\ Mel. 



XIII. 

He is lowering his conse- 
quence. 

He makes a long face. — He 
is shamefully baffled. 

They have been shamefully 
baffled. 

She is looking for her spec- 
tacles, and has them on 
her nose. 

He measures other people's 
corn by his own bushel. 

She does not know where 
her shoe pinches her. 

Her hands are deformed. 

They have not done a tittle 
of it. 

He is a hearty friend. 

He is a goodnatured man. 

His cousin is rather foolish. 



108 



6c 15ft fid) urn einen ginger 

roinben. 
<5te fyaben an 2Cttem.etroa§ aug= 

gufe^en. 
£)ag fommt wie ©enf gum SRadf)* 

ttfd). 
£)er ^amm fd)tt>tllt ifym auf. 
6S ifi immer tie alte Seier. 



He is as pliant as a willow. 



6r mctd)t eg n>ic bee gud)§ mtt 

ben &rauben. 
6c §tet>t tie fallen ein. 
0ie fyaben ben SSdren in bee 

Safd)e. 



6S muf? wentg t>ort)anben fein ; 

rcenn ec nidjtg fyerauSflauben 

lann. 
gie gefyen xvk eine $a§e urn ben 

SBrei. 
SOlan muf$ tfin bacauf ^tnjiojien. 
6r tft ubel mtt fetnem 9fcat| an= 

gelaufen. 
6r fdbmollt mit fid) felbji. 



You find fault with every- 
thing. 

That is like mustard after 
meat. 

The mustard flies to his nose. 

It is the old song over again. 

XIV. 

He is like the fox w T ith the 
grapes. 

He draws in his horns. 

You have the game (busi- 
ness, party, &c.) under 
your thumb. 

The ground must be bare 
indeed, if he can find no- 
thing to eat. 

You are only going (beat- 
ing) about the bush for it. 

He is shy about it. 

He has had his wig combed. 



9Qtan ttmrbe tt)m leinen grunf 
Staffer reidjen. 

6c t)at ben Mantel nad) bem 

SBtnbe Qefyangt. 
6c mufi fid) fummeriid) be^elfen. 
<Sie fyaben fd)6ne 2Cu$ftd)ten. 

6c mufite um>errtd)teter &a$z 



He is quarrelling with his 
bread and cheese. 

He has lost his credit. — His 
credit is not worth a far- 
thing. 

He has changed his opinion. 

He is greatly reduced. 
You are in the way to pre- 
ferment. 
He found the door shut. 



109 



(St roeifj ntcfa, wric er fid) cms 

ter jllemme fyelfen fann. 
(gr roenbet plumpe Sifren an. 



@te roerben unoerricfyteter 
ab^tefyen mufjen. 



sacfre 



He does not know how to 
get out of his difficulty. 

Any one can see through 
his artifices. 

You will find the door shut. 



XV. 



28a3 mid) betrifft, bat furd)t' 

id) ntd)t. 
£)aS (aft fid) nidbt blafen. 

£>as ftnb mtr b&fymifcfye £>6rfer. 
@r fu^rt nid)t6 2CrgeS tm ©djttb. 
©te merlen/ roo ber #afe im 

^feffer ttegt. 
(Sr tjat rucber ©efdjicf nod) ©e* 

lent 
(Sr t)at bag spuloer nid)t erfunben. 
(Seine £offnung tfi in ben SSrun= 

nen gefallen. 
(gr fufyrt immer ba6 2£crt. 
©ie tyaben nidjt mit ber <Spradbe 

gratis toollen. 
3d) bin auf ba$ ftalbSfelt fctn* 

auSgefdjojfen. 
SKan §at tym einen #of befdjeib 

gegeben. 
(§r gtbt ftd) mit unnfigem Sanb 

ab. 
3d) ^abc tiefen $3unft nur gans 

oberflddjlid) beriu)tt. 
(5t $at e§ tjalb gem, fyalb ge? 

jmungcn getyan. 
(Sr jtfct bem ©luc! im Bfyofo. 



As far as I am concerned I 
do not fear. 

That is not done bv looking 
at. 

That is Arabic to me. 

He means no harm. 

You have hit the right nail 
on the head. 

He has neither wit nor cou- 
rage. 

He is no great conjuror. 

His hopes have come to 
nothing. 

He always takes the lead. 

You have minced the matter. 

I have been disappointed. 

He has received an evasive 

answer. 
He takes much pains to no 

purpose. 
I have only just hinted at 

this part. 
He did it half willingly and 

half by compulsion. 
He is a lucky dog. 



110 



XVI. 

©laubt tf)t eincn barren ror Do you take me for a fool ? 

eud) ju ijaben? 
(Sr bleibt 9ttd)t€ fd^uibtg. He pays his debts, 

(§6 entgefyt torn SKtdjtS. Nothing escapes him. 

@r (aft atteg fiber fret) uberlaufem He allows every thing to go 

wrong. 
(Sr ift auf bem 2$ege §um ©al* He is making a halter for 

gen. nis own neck. 

@r tft Dom <>Ko§ auf ben (Sfel ges He has fallen in the world. 

femmen. 
St: mill rcenigflettS ettraS barau§ He will get a snack out of it. 

Bieben. 
(Ste trerben mit tym balb fevtig You will overcome him with 

fern. the greatest ease. 

(St mill aliesS baran fc|cn. He will spend his last far- 

thing. 
©te tt>etf$ tyre (Sadden an ben She makes the most of ner- 
mann ju brtngen. se ^« 
>)Xan oerbient ntcfcr bas SBaffer There is not enough to find 

tabet. one m s ^lt. 

St tft in bie galle gegangen. He n *s fallen into the trap. 

©tetterben in bie galle ge!)en. You wil1 be caught in the 

snare. 
£5ief »trb tym nicbt im ®ering= He will come off with flying 



(ten 3U fd:affen geben. 



colours. 



3d) l)abe einenoergeblid;en @ang I have lost my labour for 



getyan. 

(Sr fyat alle£ gegen fid). 

@ie fyaben alleS gegen <Sie. 
£aS fommt trie gerufen. 



my pains. 

He has everything against 
him. 

You do it in spite of all op- 
position. 

That comes in pudding 
time. 



Ill 



XVII. 



(5c tanjt nad) jebermannS ¥>fetfe. 
@r muf? nad) einc6 2Cnbem 

spfeife tan§en. 
(Sr fyat tie spfetfe ein§tet)en muffen. 



He is of a very easy temper, 
He is obliged to submit to 

the will of another. 
He has been obliged to draw 

in his horns. 
You will be obliged to draw 

in your horns. 
He is agreeable to anything. 
He has written me a most 

unfeeling letter. 
He is at his wit's end. 



She knows how things go 



on. 



©te toerben tic spfetfe etngie^en 

muflfen. 
<5r fagt §u2CUem ja. 
(5r §at mtr einen fXegeltjacten 

SBrtef gefcfyrieben. 
(St* roeijs nid^t/ roo itjm ber £opf 

Wt 

©ie ftefyt, ttrie tie ©acfye jfd) an? 

lagt. 
©ie tft cm lebenbtgeg 2Bod)en= 

blatt. 
©ie fyaben un§ geprellt. 
(5r roeifj fid) nad) ber £)ecfe ju 

firemen. 
@r friedjt langfam true cine 

©tfmecfe. 
<Sr ift auf VtteS gefaf t. 
@r ift bort 2Ule6 sermogenb. 
(§§ ift tfym nid)t leidjt (StroaS 

bet$ubringen. 
@r l&gt fid) gem fyoren. 
(Sr ftefyt in feinem gtof en 2£n- 

fe&en. 
©te ftefjen in feinem grofen 

2Cnfef)en. 

XVIII. 

©te arbetten mit Suft unb £tebe. They are zealous in 

business, 
©ie ift in allc ©attci red)t. She is fit for any thing 



She is a walking gazette. 

They have disappointed us. 
He gains his ends by hook 

or by crook. 
He is very slow-paced. 

He is up to everything. 
He is every thing there. 
It is not an easy matter to 

instruct him. 
He is in his fine speeches. 
He has lost all his interest. 

Their reputation is gone by. 



the 



112 



(Sr mad)t baraug fein ©etoerbe. 

©te ftnb oom £unbertften tn$ 

Saufenbfte gefommen. 
Dtef tft etne weteftd)e SBarnung. 
GrS drgert ifyn tie gltege an ber 

SBanb. 
©ie ftnb son bemfetben ©eltd)tet. 
3d) werbe e$ auSfufyren ober 

unterttegen. 
3d) beftnbe mid) fo fo/ roeber gut 

nod) (dbled)t. 
£>aS ift fo fo, rceber gut nod) 

fd)lecbt. 
3d) routbe feinen spjtfferltng 

fcarum geben. 
SEfton bat fie mit grower (Sorg* 

fait auSgelefen. 
3J?an t)at tyn roebet geiobt 

nod) ge(d)olten. 
Bit brei)t bee 2Ba$rf)ett gern eine 

9tafe. 
(St lactjte nur ge^roungen. 
(St tt)ut 2CUeS tteber atf be§at)ien. 



He devotes all his time and 

attention to it. 
They have rambled from the 

question. 
That is a hint. 
He is very touchy. 

They are of the same kidney* 
I will bring it about, or it 

shall cost me dear. 
I am middling. — I am in a 

critical situation. 
That is but indifferent. 

I would not give a straw for 
it. 

They have been most care- 
fully selected. 

They have not said a word 
to him. 

It costs her nothing to 
stretch a little. 

He gave a forced smile. 

He is a friend, except with 
his purse. 

He would skin a flint. 



(Sr wurbe an etnem (Si fd)aben. 

— (St fd)tnbet tie 2au$ urn 

ben SBatg. 
®k ttJikben an etnem (St fd)aben. 
sfltan fommt bamtt an fein (Snbe. 
<Sie roerben bamtt an fein (Snbe 

fommen. 

XIX. 
m* ait ift btefeS £inb ? What age is this child ? 

<S§ tft nur ffinf SStertel 3<$r ait. It is only a year and a quar 

ter old. 



You would skin a flint. 
It is an endless business. 
You will never have done 
with it, &c. 



113 



2Bte breit tfi biefeS &ucf) ? What is the width of this 

cloth ? 
©tefeS SBrett tft fed)§ gug lang This plank is six feet long 
unb brittfyalb breit. and two and a half broad. 

£)er &i)urm ift oter fyunbett gug The tower is four hundred 



3d) banfe Sfynen fur 3$w ©ute. 
3* oerftefye ntd)t wag er rebet. 

2Ber f)at fyeute tie SJlcffe gelefen ? 
(£3 ftet)t ubel urn ft'e auS. 
@§ ftefyt ubel urn tyn aug. 

St fann^ngltfd) unb grangoftfd?. 

©te fragte tyn um feinen Sftamen. 
3d) wollte tyn um fetne SOSofynung 

fragen. 
9lad) fed)6 Utyr trcffen ©tc itjn 

md)t mefyr §u £aufe. 
©ie fptelten um ein grufyftucf , 

(§r ift auf bem SGSege. 

©ie fyaben tfym @tn?a§ aufgebun* 

ben. 
©ie roollte tym ©trcaS aufbtnben. 
2Btt fyaben fo eben mit tf)nen ge= 

fprodjen. 
©ie fcmmen gletd). 



feet high. 
I am obliged to you for your 

kindness. 
I know not what he is driv- 
ing at. 
Who has said Mass to-day ? 
She is very ill. 
His affairs are in a very bad 

state. 
He knows English and 

French. 
She asked him his name. 
I wanted to ask him where 

he lived. 
You will not find him at 

home after six o'clock. 
They were playing for a 

breakfast. 
He is coming. 
They have imposed upon him. 



She wanted to cheat him. 
We have just now spoken to 

them. 
They will he here immedi- 
ately. 
3* Qlaube, wtr merben ein Un= I think we shall have a storm. 
gettntter befommen. 



XX. 



3$ trinle fetnen £affee. 
3d) effe nid)t gern ©pinat. 



I never take coffee. 
I am not fond of spinach. 
l 3 



114 



S05a$ fatten <§iz bcwon ? 

3d) laffe mtr bae nidjt auSreben. 

2Cd&t Sage lang tft fie nidjt auSs 

gegangen. 
©tc tt)irb bod) fyeute auggefyen. 
$ommen ©ie aud) mtt ? 
©ie gibt tfynen freten Sifd) unb 

SDlan n>trb gleid) ben Ztfd) becfen. 

@te fyaben mcfot §u leben. 

2Btr fyaben fetne tebenbtge ©eete 

angetroffen. 
(Sine £anb wafdjt tie anbere. 

2Ba£ $dnScten nidjt lernt/ Xernt 

#an§ nimmermefyr. 
<Ss ftnb ntd)t alle &6d)e, tie 

lange sflfaffer fyaben. 
<§r will tmmcr tie spferbe fyinter 

ben SBagen fpannen. 
©te beffert fid) vok ein junger 

Soft 
£)a§ SOSerf lobt ben SDtetjter. 

(gin SSSort ein SBort/ ein SKann 

ein 3Jlann . 
@r fommt auf leinen grunen 

3n>eig. 
255er juerjt fommt/ ber mafylt 

SUerft. 
£)a£ ifl; abgebrofdjeneS ©iro$. 
fOSer tt)o^l fd}miert, ber faljrt 

mot)l. 



What is your opinion of it ? 
I shall not alter my opinion. 
She has not been out for 

a week. 
But she will go out to-day. 
Will you go with me also? 
She gives them board and 

lodging. 
The cloth is going to be laid 

directly. 
They have nothing to live 

upon. 
We have not met a soul. 

One good turn deserves 
another. 

An old dog will learn no 
tricks. 

Appearances are often de- 
ceitful. 

He is always for putting the 
cart before the horses. 

She grows worse every day. 

A workman is known by his 

chips. 
An honourable man's word 

is his bond. 
He has nothing but bad 

luck. 
First come, first served. 

That is an old story. 
He who would travel fast 
must grease his wheels. 



115 



XXI. 



£>utd) ^cbaben wtrb man f(ug. 

©e ban fen ffnb gollfrei. 

©ie martet auf tyn mtt ber Unlet! 

£anb, 
@r fpcit ©ift unb ©alte. 
(Snbe gut/ a((e§ gut. 
£er SJcenfd) benft, ©oti lenf t. 

2i*ufgefcfcoben tft ntdu aufgetyoben. 

9carrenl;anbe befdj-mteren £tfd) 

unb 3Banbe- 
3Mjnggang ifr alter Safrer 2£n= 

fang. 
Srunfener SJftunb rebet auS 

vg>erjen6 ©runb. 
fiufrig in (Sfyren, fann SRtemanb 

rocfyren. 
SBer ba§ Jtleine ntcfyt efyrt, tft 

be3 ©rojsen md)t wertf). 

Sanbltdb, fttttttf). 

(Sinem ge(d)en!ten ©aulftel)tman 

ntd)t tn's 3Raul. 
3)er .peeler tft drger als bet* 

©teller. 



Experience makes fools wise. 

Thoughts pay no taxes. 

She does not care if he never 
returns. 

He is in a violent passion. 

All is well that ends well. 

Man proposes and God dis- 
poses. 

All is not lost that is delayed. 

Fools scribble their names 
everywhere. 

Idleness is the parent of 
every vice. 

When wine goes in, truth 
comes out. 

Innocent amusements can do 
no harm. 

He who does not take care 
of the pence, ought not to 
be trusted with pounds. 

Every country has its cus- 
toms. 

You must not look a gift 
horse in the mouth. 

The receiver is worse than 
the thief. 



sflcorgenfrunbe fyat ©oib 

SDtabe. 
SBeffer Sfceiber alS OJUttetber. 
9totfc) t)at fcin ©ebot. 
2Tbenbi:ct£) unb feller SKorgcn 

serfunben einen (d;5nen Sag. 



XXII. 

im Morning is the best time 
for study. 

Better be envied than pitied. 

Necessity has no law. 

Hed sky in the evening and 
white in the morning an- 
nounce a fine dav. 



116 



9?ad)getl)aner2Crbettift gut fetern. 
£>et tfpfei fallt md)t rcett oom 

©tamme. 
2Crt la#t nid)t son 2Crt. 



50lit etnem blauen 2(uge bason 

lommen. 
(5r ift bem SSatec rote au§ bem 

@eftd)te gefcfymtten. 
@§ tji balb aug mit tfym. 
©id) urn be$ £atfer$ SSart 

jftretten. 
50Ran rotrb ityn fdjon betcfyten 

lefyren. 
2Cu$ frembem SSeutel i$ gut 

§el)ren. 
@§ mug btegen ober bredjen. 

SSon grofjen 25i6tfen tjaut man 

grofk (Sp&ne. 
<£r bofyrt baS SSrett, wo eg am 

bunnften iff. 
@ie ffnb bet tf)tn tyod) am 33rett. 
SSJlan tyat tym ben SSrobforb 

t)6l)et: getjangt. 
etrcaS alle Sage auf bem S3rob 

effen mujfen. 
3$ §abe e§ alle Sage auf bem 

SSrob cffen muffen. 
3d) roar genotfytgt/ tynen tf)te 

SBitte abjujd)lagen. 
©ie §tel)t it)n am Sftatrenfetle. 
(5r rotrb fte am ^arrenfetle 

Steven. 



After labour repose is sweet. 
The child takes after its 

father. 
What is bred in the bone 

will never get out of the 

flesh. 
To come off cheap. 

He is the very image of his 

father. 
He is on the decline. 
To contend for a thing that 

is out of one's reach. 
They will teach him how to 

behave himself. 
It is easy to make free with 

another's purse. 
It must be done by consent 

or denial. 
The rich ought to pay more 

than the poor. 
He is not fond of work. 

Your credit is good with him. 

They have abridged his in- 
come. 

To be quite sickened of a 
thing. 

I have been quite sickened 
of it. 

I was obliged to refuse them. 

She leads him by the nose. 
He will lead her by the nose. 



117 



(Stnem jeben barren gefallt fetne 

£appe. 
barren mufi man mtt ^olben 

foufem 
(St gefyt ber Sftafe nad). 
@S gefyt bti tym auf tie 9cetge. 

2Cug ber 3£ot() etne Sugenb 

madden, 
greunbe in ber 9lot$ gefyen stele 

auf etn Sott). 
2Ber tie sftfiife gefreffen/ mag 

aud) tie ©cfyalen tregfefyren. 
©a jfefyen tie £)d)fen am 

SSerge. 
(St fyat ntcfyt etnen $unb au§ bem 

£5fen §u tecfen. 
@ie t)at bunne Dtjren. 
@ie Itegen mir in ben Dfyren. 
(5r tyat ben (Scfyalf Winter ben 

Dfyren. 
(§r tft nod) ntd)t Winter ben £)fyren 

trodden. 
<Ste rooilen ben $el§ roafdjen, 

unb itjn ntd)t nag mad)en. 
3m Sftofyr figcn unb spfetfen 

fcbnetben. 
20can foil ben Sag ntcfyt loben, 

et) benn ber 2Cbenb. 
©S iffc weber gefaljen nod) ge= 

fd)ma^en. 



Every fool likes his own 
hobby-horse. 

We must drive those we 
cannot lead. 

He goes straight forward. 

He is nearly at the end of 
his career. 

To make a virtue of neces- 
sity. 

Friends in adversity are 
scarce. 

He who acts foolishly must 
abide by the consequences. 

There lies the difficulty. 

He is as poor as Job. — He 

has nothing at all. 
She is not deaf. 
You annoy me. 
There is some evil design 

about him. 
He is a young simpleton. 

You are too gentle in your 

admonitions. 
To embrace the opportunity 

before it is too late. 
Do not rejoice too soon. 

It is perfectly insipid. 



XXIII. 

(Sr fyat bit Sftecfynung ofyne ben He has reckoned without his 

SBittfy gemad)t. host. 

dt xtibt fid) an iebermann. He pelts everybody. 



118 



3ebermann nrill ftrf) an tyn 

retben. 
©te fdjlagen auf ben ©acf/ unb 

metnen ben (Sfel. 

5$ein greunb ttrirb itjn in ben 

©attel l)eben. 
©te l)at iljn in ben ©attel gefyo* 

ben. 
©etn greunb $at tyn au§ bem 

©attel Ijeben rooilen. 
@c lebt in ©au$ unb 23rau§. 
©te l)at iljre ©d)afe in3 Srocfene 

gebrad)t. 
(St- ttrirb fetne ©d)afe in§ Srol^ 

lene bringen. 
@r fd)ert roofyl fein ©djafcfcen. 
gromme ©cfyafe $el)en mele in 

ben ©tall. 
(Sr t|t ein gute§ ftommeS ©d)af. 
©djein unb ©ein ijt sweierlei. 

2Bol)l gefdjofiem aber. ubel ges 
troffen. 



Everybody wants to pelt him. 

You correct one who is not 
culpable in the presence 
of one who is so. 

My friend will make his 
fortune for him. 

She has made his fortune. 

His friend would have sup- 
planted him. 

He leads a gay life. 

She has taken care of her 
property. 

He will take care of his 
property. 

He gets it by perquisites. 

Where there is a will there 
is a way. 

He is a good-natured fellow. 

Mere appearance is not 
reality. 

Well meant but ill said. 



119 



CHAPTER V. 

IDIOMATICAL AND MERCANTILE 
PHRASEOLOGY. 



2Clte ©eroofynfyeitem legen ftdj 

md)t leid)t ab. 
Arbeit madjt unS fro^e Sage, 

Srdgtyett nrirb un3 felbft jur 

spiage. 
2Crmutf) fdjdnbct nidjt, aber 

Sfyorfyett unb Sajler. 
2Cud> tie (Sonne tjr nidjt ofyne 

glecfen. 
SSofe ©efctlfdbaften serberben 

gute ©trten. 
IBeffer fpat al§ gar ntdjt. 
SBeffer arm mtr <Si)re< alS retd) 

nut <Stf)anbe. 

£)er ift fd)6ri/ bet fd)6n fyanbelt. 

£eute rottj, morgen tobt. 

SDu magft tt>ot)l fd)6n unb t>ors 

nefym fein 5 bod) bilbe bit 

barauf md)t§ etn. 
£)urd) tt)ieberl)olte (Streid)e 

fdtlt bte gvofjte (Sidje. 
£>er $ord)er an bcr SBanb fyort 

fcinc eigene ©djanb'. 
2)a$ 2Cngeftd^t oerratt) bte SEfyat. 

£)er Jtrug gefyt fo lange §um 
SBrunnen big er bridfjt. 



Old habits are not easily left 
off. 

Labour is a source of plea- 
sure, idleness of pain. 

Poverty is not a disgrace, 

but vice and folly are. 
Every man has his faults. 

Evil communication corrupts 
good manners. 

Better late than never. 

Honourable poverty is pre- 
ferable to wealth with in- 
famy. 

Handsome is that handsome 
does. 

To-day red, to-morrow dead. 

Spoil not beauty's honour 
with conceit. 

Repeated strokes fell the 

greatest oaks. 
Listeners hear no good of 

themselves. 
A guilty conscience needs no 

accuser. 
The pitcher that goes often 

to the well returns broken 

at last. 



120 



SBtr ftnb bafytnter gefommen. 
(Sine ©djroal&e mad)t fetnen 

(Sommer. 
gaulfein gletcfyt tern Sffojic/ eg 

Derjefyrt mefyt alS 2Crbett. 
griebe ernafyrt/ Unfrtebe wrjefyrt. 

grifd) gewagt ift fyalb gettxmnen. 

©ewofynfyett tjt Me gtoeitc SKatur. 
Sugenb ift tie §ett ber greube. 

Sung geroofynt, alt getfyan. 

jtletne £)iebe fyangt man, bte 
grofilen laf t man laufen. 

SKorgen, morgen! nur ntcfyt 
fyeute, fagen immer faule 
%euU. 

9QfHt ber §cit pfXuc^t man Sffofen. 

9tftancf)er 2Cpfel tjat etne fdbSne 
(Scfyale unb tnroenbtg ftecBt 
ein £Burm. 

?Rtd)t§ ttriffen ift feme (gcfyanbe/ 
aber md)t lernen tt>ollen. 

SRoty brid)t ©fen. 

9larf) tern EKegen fdbeint tie 

©onne. 
yiifyt Bteitftftyxm/ fonbern 3ufrte* 

benfyeit madfot bie SO^enfci)en 

glucflid). 
SRom ift in einem Sage nicfyt 

gebauet roorben. 



We are in the secret. 

One swallow does not make 

a summer. 
Idleness, like rust, is more 

destructive than labour. 
In peace we bloom, in dis- 
cord consume. 
Freely ventured, quickly 

won. 
Custom is a second nature. 
Youth is the season for 

pleasure. 
What we are accustomed to 

in youth we do in old age. 
Little thieves are hanged, 

but great ones are allowed 

to escape. 
Do not put off till to-morrow 

what you can do to-day. 

Be patient, and in time you 

will succeed. 
A fair outside may treachery 

hide. 

To be ignorant is a misfor- 
tune, to be unwilling to 
learn a disgrace. 

Necessity has no law. 

After a storm comes a calm. 

It is not wealth, but content, 
that makes men happy. 

Rome was not built in a day. 



121 



SBerfpredpn unb batten frc^r fetn 
an Sung unb liltcn. 

SSSem ntd)t §u ratten i|r, tern ijl 

aud) ntd^r gu ^eifen. 
I85er ntemais benft, nrirb memalS 

tueife merben. 
SSer nidjt fybxeuwift, mv$ fut)len. 

2Ber Unglutf gefoftet Far, roeijj 
one e§ etnem anbern fdjmecft. 

SQSo nid)t§ i\t f ba fyat ter Jtatfer 

fetn SRedit »erloren. 
2Ber roenfj fyat, fann roenig 

miffen. 
2Ber anbern etne ©rube qxabt, 

fdllt enbltd) fclbji baretn. 

23er ftd) in ©efatjr begibt, fommt 

teid)t urn. 
2£er letdjt giaubt, nrirb feid)t 

betrogen. 
Sffiag man gern tfcut, nrirb einem 

letd}t. 
2BaS betne£ 2Cmt€ md;t if:, ba 

(af beinen SJovtpt^. 
gBtffcnfdjafi t)err[ri): tmmer fiber 

Unnriffen$tit. 

3ett/ ©bbe unb glut§ marten auf 

Sfttemanb. 
Sdjl&fler in tie Suft bauen. 
3d) fann ntdjts bafur. 
©ebe rait tie <£d)ulb merit. 

3d) bin md)t Sdjulb baran. 



it behoves both young and 
old to perform what they 
promise. 

He who will not be advised, 
cannot be helped. 

He who never thinks, will- 
never be wise. 

He who will not hear, must 
feel. 

Misfortune teaches compas- 
sion. 

Where there is nothing, the 
king loses his right. 

He who has but little, has 
little to lose. 

Whoever digs a pit for an- 
other, ultimately falls into 
it himself. 

He who runs into danger, 
soon perishes. 

The credulous are easily de- 
ceived. 

Where there is a will there 
is a way. 

Do not trouble yourself with 
other people's business. 

Knowledge will always have 
the ascendancy over ig- 
norance. 

Time and tide wait for no 
man. 

To build castles in the air. 

I cannot help it. 

Do not impute the blame to 
me. 

I am not to blame for it. 

M 



122 



(§r erjatyt etrcag (Sinfalttgeg. 

£>teg gel)6rt ntd)t tytefyer. 

3d) fann eg nid)t anbern. 

Sr fyut few 2Sefte6. 

@te ftellen etne genaue Untctfu- 

cfyung an. 
<5r $at eg nidjt gern getfyan. 

<5r lagt fid) 20leg gefallen. 
34 laffe eg barauf anfommen. 



He tells stories without either 

head or tail. 
That has nothing to do with 

it. 
1 can do nothing in that 

affair. 
He does all he can. 
They are making a strict 

enquiry. 
He did not do it intention- 

ally. 
He submits to every thing. 
I am prepared for the worst. 
9tid)t nriffen, rcie man ftdj bet Not to know how to set 
etroag §u serfyatten §at, uric about a thing, 

man eg anfangen foil. 
@g fref)t Sfynen fret. 

£)ag tft mir gu l)od). 

Ste follen eg empfinben. 

@g fdjmecft ntdhtg um)erfu<$t. 

£)tefeg portrait tft gut getroffen. 

@g elelt mir bat>or. 

28ie lange foil id) nod) marten ? 
©te I6nncn nod) lange marten. 

3d) oerbenfe e§ tfym nid;t. 

3d) serbenfe eg 3*)nen f^r. 

(fg foil barauf md)t anfommen. 



You are at liberty to do as 
you please. 

That is above my compre- 
hension. 

You will not escape with 
impunity. 

To judge of that, one must 
have experienced it. 

This portrait is a good like- 
ness. 

I am disgusted with it. 

How long am I to wait ? 

You have a long time to 
wait yet. 

I do not blame him alone for 
it. 

I think you are very much 
to be blamed for it. 

Do not let that be an ob- 
stacle. 



123 



Wan fyat tyn in ben 2Cpril ge= 
fdjtcft. 

6t tturb e£ ntdjt babet bewenbcn 

laffen, 
(53 gefyt t£)m alleS nad) Sffiunfd). 

@elei)rten tft gut prebtgen. 
£aS [aft fd)6n. 
£>aS SSlatt t)at fid) gercenbet. 
(Sr tft 5U allem §u gebraucfyen. 
£)tefe £nopfe fd)tc!en ftdj nid)t 

in btefem ^leibe. 
£)a§ jtefyt 36nen fefyt fd)6n. 
©te tfyaten alleS/ mas fie tfym an 

ben 2Cugen anfe^en fonnten. 
@r tft md)t fo fd)iimm a(6 ec 

auSjtefjt. 
grcunbfdjaft $in# greunbfdjaft 

let* 
<5tn ©djelm/ ber eg bofe meint. 

Sajfen (Sie fid) ha$ eine ^ffiar^ 

nung fetn. 
2)te <Sad;e ift ntcfyt §u ^tanbe 

gefommen. 
OTeS bletbt betm 2Uten. 

@r nrirb eS Kwtyt bletben laffen. 
Seber fjat fetn (Stecfenpferb. 

(53 tft mtr. fairer angefcmmen. 

£)te ^ad)e ge^t mid) an. 

33) laffe mtr baS nic^t auSreben. 



They have made an April 

fool of him. 
He will not stick at that. 

He succeeds in every thing 

he undertakes. 
A word to the wise. 
That is pretty to look upon. 
The case is altered. 
He is fit for anything. 
These buttons are not fit for 

this coat. 
You look very well in that. 
They anticipated his wishes. 

He is not so bad as he ap- 
pears to be. 

Friendship has nothing to 
do with it. 

Evil be to him that evil 
thinks. 

Be more upon your guard in 
future. 

The undertaking has not 
succeeded. 

Every thing remains as it 
was. 

He will not interfere with it. 

Every one has his hobby- 
horse. 

It was very difficult for me 
to make up my mind to it. 

I am interested in the busi- 
ness. 

I shall not change my opi- 
nion. 



124 



Sine <£t)rc ijl ter antern roevtt). 

93tad)en ©ie eg fid) bequem. 
3d) trage fein SBebenfen eg §u 

tfyun. 
?Cftan farm e§ gar mdtf befdjretben. 
3d) roetjj nid)t, roag it)n ba^u be? 

toegt. 
(Sr t)at miti) betogen. 
3d) fann tfym ba$ md)t aug bem 

Jtopfe bringen. 
©ie t>t t$n urn alleg gebrad)t. 
SOfcan §at nid)t§ auf i^)n bringen 

fonnen. 

3d) bin babet gercefen. 
GrS liegt mir niditg baran. 
(Sr fann au§ (Srfafyrung fpred)en. 
©ie ijat ifyn fal[d)lid) angegeben, 
3d) i)abe mir eg feft oorgencm? 

men. 
Sftan mufj eg nid)t (o genau 

nefymen. 
(Sr gibt auf alleg fefyr genau lidjt. 

$£iv troUen bacon abbredjen. 

3d) fann mid) mit ttym nidjt rer- 

tragen. 
£$ergnugt fein gefyt uber 3fteict> 

tt)um. 
Sie fyaben eg ein menig §u grob 

gemad)t. 
($r l)at eg fefyr gut bei feinem 

#errn. 
<Sie tyat eg beffer aU tt)re 

(Sd)n;ejtern. 



One good turn deserves 

another. 
Make yourself comfortable. 
I am willing to do it. 

It beggars all description. 
I do not know what is his 

motive for it. 
He has deceived me. 
I cannot persuade him to 

the contrary. 
She has ruined him. 
They have not been able to 

bring any charge against 

him. 
I was present at the time. 
I have no interest in it. 
He is a man of experience. 
She has accused him falsely. 
I have seriously made up my 

mind to do it. 
We must not. examine it so 

closely. 
He allows nothing to pass 

unobserved. 
Let us talk about something 

else. 
i cannot bear him. 

Contentment is better than 

wealth. 
That is above a joke. 

He is well treated by his 
master. 

She is in better circum- 
stances than her sisters. 



125 



3ttan mug eg nidjtfo roett Commen 

laffen. 
2Ba§ fatten Sie baoon ? 
#ug ten 2Cugen/ aug tern Sinn. 
@g ijl mix baran gelegen. 
(5r mifd)t fid) fe^r in frcmbe 

§dnbel. 
(St lann ntd)t mugtg gefyen. 
SQStc roar 3fynen ju SKut^e ? 
3d) n?eip rote etnem in bergteid)en 

gdlten su SJtutye ijl, 
Sftdjttge Sftecfynung erfydlt gute 

greunbe. 
9tun ftnb rote etnanber nicfytg 

me^r fcftuibtg. 
2B : .r roollen baruber fdjtafen. 
6te f)aben mtr bag jum spoflfen 

geifyan. 
(Jin rdubtgeg ©cfcaf fiecft tie 

gar^e #eerbe an. 
<5r fauft wit ein SSurftenbtnber. 
£>et SEBolf fript aud) tie ge§d^ 

ten @d)afe. 
3Bo Sauben ftnb/ fltegen Sauben 

&u. 
(Sin ieber ijl #err in fetnem 

|»aufe; 
£)ag £emb ift mk nd^er alg ber 

9tocf. 
@te fyat ifcm ben (Sdjiuffet auf 

bag ©cab gelegt. 
(§g ift unmoglid)/ bag Sic bag 

tt)un fonnen. 
©title fSSaffer grimben tief. 
SBSciwi er bog ift/ fo mag ec 

rcueber gut werben. 



We must not allow it to go 
on to such a length. 

What is your opinion of it ? 

Out of sight, out of mind. 

I am not indifferent to it. 

He meddles with other peo- 
ple's business. 

He must be doing something. 

How did you feel ? 

I know what it is to be so 
situated. 

Short reckonings make long 
friends. 

Now we are quits. 

Advise with your pillow. 
You have played me a trick 

One bad sheep spoils the 
whole flock. 

He drinks like a fish. 

Do not reckon your chickens 
before they are hatched. 

Birds of a feather flock to- 
gether. 

Every one may do as he 
likes in his own house. 

Charity begins at home. 

His widow has renounced 

the succession. 
If you do it I will give you 

a white crow. 
Smooth water runs deep. 
If he be vexed, let him 

please himself again. 
m 3 



126 

3d) M)roa£e me aug bee ©durte. I never tell tales out of 

school. 
Dtefe SRofen fyaben fdwn oerbfityt. These roses are faded. 
£>te 9to(e ift ba6 (Sinnbilb ber The rose is the emblem of 

®#5nbeit. beauty. 

3fom t|t ntdjt in etnem Sage ge= Rome was not built in a day. 

bauet worben. 
®S lann md)t aileS g(etd) jetn in There must be different 

ber §Q3clr. classes of society. 

2BaS er ftd) etnmal in ben £opf When he has once made up 

gefefci £at, babet bleibt ec« his mind, he never alters 

it. 
£er 2Binb brefc)t ftd) oon Morten The wind is shifting from 

nad) 3£ejten. the north to the west. 

Dtefer |>ut ftetyt 3fynen gut. This hat fits you well. 

Bk fommen mir Ijeute fo ernfU You look very grave to-day. 

fyaft oor. 
©te uberlegen ntd)t n?aS ©tc You do not know what you 

fagen. are saying. 

Stofprecfyen unb fatten tft jweu It is one thing to promise 

erlet. and another to perform. 

2Cuf etne bumme gvage get)6vt A foolish question requires 

letne 2Cntn>ort. no answer. 

3d) m5d)tebtefeS 23ud) gernlefen. I should like to read this 

book. 
3d) wxbt ©ie ffftotgen befudjen. I will call upon you to- 
morrow. 
3d) t)abe mir em gebermeffcr I have bought a penknife. 

gefauft. 
3d) nefyme mir bie grcit)ett an I take the liberty of writing 

@te &u fd)retben. to you. 

SBStt wetben unS ba£ Sergnugen We will do ourselves the 

mad)en. pleasure. 

3d) wrfte^e nid)t wa§ ©ie reben. I do not understand what 

you say. 
KBai fe^lt Sfynen/ lieber greunb ? What do you want, my good 

fellow ? 



127 



(5$ roirb @ie befcemben e§ &u 

fyoren. 
3d) bttte @te urn 3&* geber* 

meffer. 
(Si* btttet mid) urn etne ©efatltg* 

felt. 
(gr btttet urn tie (Srlaubntf? 

nad) #aufe gu gefyen. 
34 banfe Sfynen ffe: 3^e ©ute. 

3d) bin ad)t Sage md)t au§ge s 

gangen. 
©te ftnb sot bret Sagen ctbge? 

reift. 
£)iefe£ &inb fann lefen unb 

fcfyretben ; taffen ©ie e£ etns 

mat lefen. 
Saffen ©ie e3 herein fommen. 
Saffen ©ie fetnen SSruber fyolen. 
3d) bin mtt tfym gufriebert/ unb 

aud) mtt 3fynen, 
3d) fomme gtetd). 

3d) fomme gteid) trteber. 

3d) mitt nur eine S3tertetftunbe 

auSbleiben. 
fOBir werben ein Ungenntter unb 

SKegen belommen. 
©tnb mete franjbfifdje Sefyrer in 

ber ©tabt? 

2Bo tjaben ©te biefen #erw 
fennen geternt ? 

2)a§ fage id) nid)t. 

£)aS tt;ut mein SSruber nidjt. 



You will be surprised to hear 

it. 
Pray lend me your penknife. 

He asks me to do him a 
favour. 

He asks for permission to 
go home. 

I thank you for your kind- 
ness. 

It is a week since I went 
out. 

They took their departure 
three days ago. 

This child can read and 
write ; hear him read. 

Tell him to come in. 

Send for his brother. 

I am pleased with him, and 
with you likewise. 

I will be with you imme- 
diately. 

I am coming back directly. 

I shall not be away more 
than a quarter of an hour. 

We shall have a storm. 

Are there many teachers of 
the French language in 
this town ? 

Where did you become ac- 
quainted with that gen- 
tleman ? 

I shall keep that a secret. 

My brother will not do that. 



128 



£)a§ macf)t ber SGBcin. 

3d) lomme son metnem Dfyetm. 

£abzn £te tte ©tite, unb !om= 

men @te mit mtr. 
^etn 6>te fo gtutg unb fagen <5ie 

mtr. 
3d) roerbe mtr tie (Sfyxe geben 

gte 5U begletten. 
3d) nrill 3fynen ntdjt befytoet* 

ltd) fallen. 
3d) ^abt ben (Sdjnupfen. 
§Bo !;aben BU biefcn Sdjnupfen 

befommen? 



That is the effect of the wine. 
My uncle has sent me. 
Have the goodness to come 

with me. 
Be so kind as to tell me. 

I will do myself the honour 

to accompany you. 
I will not interrupt you. 

I have a cold. 

Where have you got that 
cold ? 



g* if: ein foltfcer SOtonn. 
<5r rotbmet jtd) sordid) bem 
(Sommif|tenH?anbel. 

(Sr fyat al£ ©eljulfc in ben ange^ 

fe^cnften £anb!ungS=£aufetn 

gearbettet. 
dr ijat (cine eigenen d5efd;dfte 

angefangen. 
G£r tft etn Gompagnon beg £rn. 

9fo unb ifl mit feti.er SSer^ 

bintung gufrieben. 
dx tjr etn gefd)trorner leafier, 
©ic fonnen fid) auf tie ga^lung 

oerlajjen. 
3d) roerbe 8ie gur. £ec!ung 

metner tm ndiften SOlonat 

fallig rperbenben 23erpfltdnun= 

gen mit guten SRimeffen auf 

Hamburg rcrfe^en. 



He is a man of good account. 

He confines himself espe- 
cially to the commission 
line. 

He has served as clerk in 
the most eminent com- 
mercial houses. 

He has set up for himself. 

He is a partner of Mr. N., 
and he is satisfied with 
his partnership. 

He is a sworn broker. 

You may rely on the pay- 
ment. 

I will provide you with good 
remittan ces on Hamburgh, 
to cover my engagement 
becoming due in the course 
of next month. 



129 



Unfere ©peculation nacb Xmerifa 
ift gut auSgefalten. 

3d) ^abe leinen SBcrtfjeit ccn 
liefer Unternefymung ge^abt, 
intern ber 9Jiar!t mit biefem 
2Crtifel uberfutyrt war. 

Sfyre Sratten finb getydrig etn= 
geloft rcorben. 

22a6 fur ein ©eirinn roirb babet 
fein ? 

22eld)er ©enMnn rcirb babei 
tyeraugf ommcn ? 

3&t §Skrt$e§t>om 7. b. ift ric^tig 
eingegangen. 

3i)re gefcfyafcten 3eiten torn 15. 
D. SCR. finb unS erft t)eute §u= 
gefommen. 

3§r 2Sertr;e3 com 18. 3ulp ift 
mit tester $>ojr eingegangen. 

2Btr benu^en tiefe ©elegen^eit 
nacl) 2Cmerila/ burd) ben ©apU 
tain ©rat)/ ©ie ju benad^ri^ 
tigen/ baf$ tt>ir nod) fonwafc 
renb o\)m irgenb eine 2CnttDort 
rutfftcbtltd) beS betrufjten ©e= 
fd>afts finb. 

3$r letter SBrief an mid) ift irre 
gelaufen. 

Sie finb fur auggelegteg SSrtef- 
porto mit 5Z. 45. 6c?. belafret 
tr-orben. 

3£rem 2£uftrage ^ufoige nmrben 
wit leinen ^ugenbucf gefaumt 
fyaben Sfyve SSefteltung au?5u= 
fu^ren/ aber §u ben un£ ge= 
marten SSegran^ungen war 



Our speculation for America 
has turned to account. 

I have reaped no profit from 
this undertaking, the 
market having been over- 
stocked with this article. 

Your drafts have been duly 
discharged. 

What profit will accrue 
thereby ? 

What gain will arise there- 
from ? 

Your favour of the 7th inst. 
came duly to hand. 

Your esteemed lines of the 
loth ult. have but reached 
us to-day. 

Your kind letter of the 18th 
July C3me by last post. 

We embrace this opportu- 
nity for America, by Cap- 
tain John Gray, to advise 
you that we are still with- 
out any answer concern- 
ing the business in ques- 
tion. 

Your last letter to me has 
miscarried. 

You are debited for the 
postage I paid, with 
51. 4s. 6d. 

Pursuant to vour order, we 
should not have lost a 
moment in executing your 
commission, but, at the 
limits given us, it was not 



130 



eg md)t mogltd), tfyren SSefefyl 

auSjufufjrem 
Set) bebarf einer gregen (Summe 

@eibe$. 3d) bin in SRoty 

urn (Safja. 
£>ie ^retfe ftnb in baarem @elbe 

nottrt, 
Scf) bin sum Curator ber ?0^a(fe 

erwafylt roorben. 
@r f)at in biefem gallifiement 

eine SSotlmadjt on ben £errn 

S3, gefanbt. 
(§r Ijat fid) $u frarl in SBSed&fefe 

retteret etngeiafjen. 
sDer Simbenb roirb ffinf <5d)tfs 

linge fiir ba$ $Pfunb few* or, 

er fyat funf (Scfyttfinge im 

spfunbe geiaffen. 
SSetber te^ten SSerfammlung ber 

©tdubtger be^telt i<$ mir 

meine 2Cnfprucbe oor/ wenn 

ber gall.it roteber in beffere 

Umjidnbc lommt. 
<£r war tic (Stn^tge, ber bm 

sorgefefytagenen 23ergleid) nidjt 

etngtng. 
3d) r;abe fetne S5ud)er unter* 

fud)t/ urn 5U erfar;ren/ ttrie 

(eine <Sad)en ftefjen. 
3d) roerbe genotfyigt fetn ; (Sie 

roegen jroet 28ed)fel §u belan= 

gen. 
©panifdje ££otfe lann je£t jolU 

fret etngefufyrt roerben. 
Setn £rebit roar aufs fyocfyjle 

gejftegem 



possible to effect your 
order. 

I have occasion for a great 
sum of money. I am 
distressed for cash. 

The prices are quoted in 
ready cash. 

I have been chosen an as- 
signee. 

He has sent a power of at- 
torney in this failure to 
Mr. B. 

He has given too much into 
drawing and redrawing. 

The dividend will be five 
shillings in the pound, 
or, he has left five shillings 
in the pound. 

At the last meeting of cre- 
ditors, I reserved a future 
claim, in case the bankrupt 
again proves successful in 
business. 

He was the only one who did 
not consent to the agree- 
ment proposed. 

I have examined his books, 
to find out how matters 
stand with him. 

I shall be obliged to bring an 
action against you about 
two bills. 

Spanish wool may now be 
imported duty free. 

His credit had risen to the 
utmost. 



131 



£5er28etn mug abge^ogen werben. 
(gr gtng auS, urn etroa§ (Mb 

auf^utretben. 
£)te ?>retfe beg £orn§ ftetjen fyodj. 
£>te spretfe finb geftiegen. 
(Sr lommr empor. 
£)a$ ©tranbredjt tjife^r ftrenge. 

©te mujfen fid) auf bte SSe^afytung 

etneS sftadjfdjutfeS gefa^t 

madjen. 
3d) empfange 3fyre ^Briefe D'ebet 

uber £)jfenfce, al§ uber #ol* 

lanb. 
£)aS ©d)tff ift an ber Sftunbung 

beS glujfci gefrranbet. 
(Sin grofkr S£§eit ber ©uter ift 

burd) Seudjterfafyrjeuge gebor- 

gen roorben. 
2)a£ ©cfytff ift ttneber fXott ge~ 

mad)t trorben. 
©te finb burd) bie SSerftdjerung 

gebecft. 
£)ie£3erfid)erer finb nid)toerpfItd]= 

tet, oorS5eenbtgung ber ©treits 

fadje 5U bejafylen. 
3d) oerliere bet btefem Unfalle. 
£)ie SSerftd^erer bejafyften ben 23er= 

fid)erten 30 p(5t. auf #bfd)lag. 

£)a§ ©d)iff Ud)tete bie tfnfer 
unb ging mtt einem gunjftgen 
fJBtnbe unter ©egel. 

£)er (Sapitatn war burd) nribrige 
SBinbe genotfytgt, in 23reft eins 
gutaufen unb 2Cn!er§un?erfen. 



The wine must be racked. 
He went out to raise some 

money. 
Corn is very dear. 
Prices have risen. 
He is making his fortune. 
The laws of shipwreck are 

very rigorous. 
You may prepare yourself to 

pay some arrears. 

I like to receive your letters 
via Ostend, rather than 
by way of Holland. 

The ship stranded at the 
mouth of the river. 

Great part of the goods has 
been saved by lighters. 

The ship has again been set 

afloat. 
The insurance covers you. 

The insurers are not bound 
to pay the money before 
the suit is ended. 

I lose by that mishap. 

The underwriters paid 30 per 
cent, before hand to the 
insured. 

The ship weighed anchor, 
and set sail with a fair 
wind. 

The captain was forced by 
adverse (or contrary) 
winds to put into Brest 
and to cast anchor. 



132 



<Sin£rieg§fd)tff bradjte $roet reid) 

belabene $auffa£)rtetfd)tffe auf. 
£)te ^eerdubet (or tie itaper) 

beunrufytgen tie jtujlc, unb tie 

S$erftd)erung§=93ramie tjl fefyr 

t)od). 
Sic £aoatie iji nod) md)t aufc 

gemad)t. 
@S ijl tin ftarfeS/ btd)te§ unb 

tt?ot)lgebautc€ Sd)tff, unb com 

£errn Sft. auf (Stjactepartte 

befrad)tet. 
6r biente aiS ©djtffgjtmmcrmann 

auf ben SDSerften t>on (Snglanb. 
(Sr rujlet jwei ©djiffc aus. 
3d) oerlange cine (Sntfdj&fetgung 

oon tfym, tnbem ic^ bafur ocr^ 

antmortltd) bin. 
28et£en tjl urn 200 £f)tr. §u 

fyaben. 
2Bed)fel auf spans ftnb al pari 

md)t gu fyaben. 
Snbtgo ijl fetyr begefyrt. 
3d) be$tefye mid) auf meinen 

le£ten 33rief. 
£te ^Preife jletgen ftyr* unb 

ircrbcn ftd) alter SBatnrfdjein* 

ltdjfett nad) fatten. 
@S ijl roentg Seben auf unfcrm 

$pta§e. 
Sic Sfyran^retfe fatten ftd). 
@S fyat ftd) cine gute 9tad)frage 

fur SGSolle ctngejlellt. 
3n btefem TCugenblicf !am tie 

(Snctftfd)e gpoft &ur. @tabt. 
<5r t)at etnen RNr$afte»Scfftf 

gegen tfyn bewtrlt. 



A man of war captured two 
merchantmen richly laden. 

The pirates (or, the priva- 
teers) infest the coast, and 
the premium of insurance 
is very high. 

The av ^rage is not yet set- 
tled. 

It is a strong, staunch, and 
well built vessel, and char- 
tered by Mr. N. 

He served as a shipwright in 
the dockyards of England. 

He is fitting out two ships. 

I demand an indemnity of 
him, being answerable for 
it. 

Wheat sells at 200 dollars. 

Bills on Paris are not to be 

had at par. 
There is a great call for indigo. 
I crave your reference to my 

last letter. 
The prices run very high, 

and in all likelihood will 

be supported. 
There is little stir in our 

market. 
Train-oil keeps up. 
Wool has been much in de- 
mand. 
The English mail reached 

town this moment. 
He has got a writ against 

him. 



137 



£)te ®uter finb tern gufyvmann 

auSgeliefert worben. 
3otlangabe tx)irb btejemge £)e^ 
Iteration genannt, roorin tie 
etngefufyrten ©titer fpectfictrt 
angegeben finb. 

JDte Unloften ouf ben ge^ogenen 

unb proteftirten 2Bcd)fel be= 

foufen fid) auf SCR!.— 
SDGcm tyat etne grofe fERenge 

$rapp au6geful)rt. 
3$ fenne fetne SkrmogenSums 

ftdnbe. 
3&r 2Sed)fel tjl Sffiangel^n* 

nafyme protefttrt roorben. 
£)er 2Sed)fel tft son etnem unbe? 

fannten £au(e ge§ogen, aber 

Don ben erften 33anfter$ tn^ 

boffirt. 
2)te S3er!auf6sSRed)nung ijl oor= 

tyettyaft. 
3<3) bitte (Sie ben SSetrag in 

JSolomaUBaaren anjulegen/ 

benn bte ^pcetfe roerben ofyne 

Sroetfel ftetgen. 
Sebermann an unferer 836rfe war 

ber SKetnung, baf* bte spreife 

btefcr 2Baare niebrtger ge^en 

rcurben. 
<Set)r grofe 2Cn!aufe ftnb in 

3taffee gemad)t roorben. 
©te burfen ntdjt befuccfytem baj? 

bie spretfe fallen trerben. 

£)a§ ftetgen ber ^vetfe §u £am~ 



The goods have been de- 
livered to the carrier. 

Entry at the custom-house 
is called that declaration, 
wherein the goods which 
have been imported, are 
specified. 

The account of charges on 
the protested bill amounts 
to marks — . 

There is exported a great 
quantity of madder. 

I am acquainted with the 
state of his affairs. 

Your bill has been protested 
for want of acceptance. 

The bill is drawn by an un- 
known house, but indorsed 
by the first bankers. 

The account-sales are very 
pleasing (satisfactory). 

I beg you to invest the 
amount in colonial pro- 
duce, because the prices 
will rise beyond doubt. 

Every body at our exchange 
was of opinion that the 
prices of this commodity 
would decline. 

Very large purchases have 
been made in coffee. 

You need be under no ap- 
prehension of a decline in 
prices. 

The rising of the prices at 

N 



138 



burg fyat auf unfern 9ftar£t 

(Stnfiuf? gefyabt. 
Set) roerbe 2Cntl)ett baran nefymen. 
3d) barf e§ ntcrjt roagen Sfynen 

eine ^ommtffton 511 aeben. 
Sklieben ©ie unfere Prima §ur 

Skrfugung ber Secunda 511 

fatten. 
2)er 23elauf ber Ricambio 

(3ftucfr'oed)felred)nung)ijr£ — . 
£te SBaaren [tub fecr;S SOtonat 

3tel angefe^t, unb roir berml- 

itgen 3fynen 4 p(5t. bci £3aar= 

la^lung. 
SBMu t)Qben 10.000 SDcf. ^cc. 

auf ©ie abgegeben/ unb rrer^ 

ben ntd)t mfefyleu/ Sfynen bei 

SSerfalljeit 2Cnfd)affungen bo^ 

fur §u mafym. 
3d) jrebe Jbnen etnen ^rebtt 

son £ — git. 
SBtr rotbmen un$ bloS tern G>orn^ 

tmfjton§*£anbei. 

St)* £au£ tft unS empfot)(en 

roorben. 
£)ie Courtage (Sftafletlo^n) ijr 

SBegen metner 2Cu3lagen roerbe 
td) mid) mtt tern $errn Sft". 
beredbnen. 

Stjre 2Cnn>ei(ung auf — — ijr 
etngegangen. 

SKenn 3fyre SCnfdjaffungen gur 
rcd)ten 3ett bn un§ etnfpredjen, 
fo rcerben wrir me bxe <3tnIo^ 
fung il)rer Srattcn serrceigern. 



Hamburgh has affected 
our market likewise. 

I shall take a share in it. 

I dare not venture to give 
you a commission. 

Please to hold our first of 
exchange for the call of the 
second. 

The amount of re-exchange 
is £ — . 

The goods are charged at 
six months' credit, and we 
grant you 4 per cent, in 
paying prompt. 

We have valued on you 
10,000 marks banco, and 
shall not fail of reimburs- 
ing you at maturity (or, 
before they fall due). 

I allow you a running credit 
so high as £ — . 

We devote (confine) ourselves 
solely to the commission 
line. 

Your house has been recom- 
mended to us. 

The brokerage is £ per cent. 

For the amount of my dis- 
bursements I shall draw- 
on Mr. N. 

Your bill on is cashed. 

If your funds reach us in 
due time, we shall never 
refuse the acceptance of 
your drafts. 



139 



Sfyre Unternet;mmig roirb fefyr 
gute SRed)nung geben. 

3d) biete 3fynen meine £)ienfte 
an. 

£)ie Dftinbifdje gompagnie §at 
2000 SSallen SSaumwcIle &um 
SSerfauf auSgefefct. 

£>a$ £au§ con 9£. tyat 3afylung 
etngejtellt. 

©te fonnen ftct) barauf cerlaffeti/ 
bag id) 3fyre Sratten* bti 
SSorjeigung/ ge^ortg oerefyren 
roerbe. 

©te lonnen fid) fur ben SBclauf 
3^er gafture, unter glettfs 
settiger ©infenbung be£ Gon^ 
noifjements §ur Skrficfyerung, 
auf ben #errn 5ft. in Hamburg 
erfyolen. 

£>a baS ©(^itf# reeled ©te con 
2Cmerifa er roar ten* in fdf)lecfy= 
tern SFtuf bei unfern ^ffecura^ 
beurs tjt/ fo fyaben rotr letne 
2Cu€ftd)t/ bie 2Cffecuran$ ^u 
hem oorgefd)riebenen SpretS 
511 be [or gen, 

<Sc(d)e SBebtngungen fretjen unS 
nicr)t an. 

(Sr fyat ein 3Baaren=2ager in 
ber ^rfort^trafe errid)tet. 

3d) r;abe au3 S^rem Umlaufs* 
fdjretben bemerft/ bag ©ie 
fid) conbem $errn 9t. getrermt 
tyabeti. 

@r treibt feine @ef$&fte mit 
inelem (Srfolg. 



Your enterprise will turn to 

good account. 
I tender my services to you. 

The East India Company 

has put up for sale 2000 

bales of cotton, 
The house of N. has stopped 

payment. 
You may rely on my duly 

honouring your drafts on 

presentation. 

You may reimburse yourself 
for the amount of your in- 
voice on Mr. N. in Ham- 
burgh, transmitting him at 
the same time the bill of 
lading for insurance. 

The ship you expect from 
America, being in bad re- 
pute among our under- 
writers, we have no pros- 
pect of effecting the in- 
surance at your limits. 

Such terms do not suit us. 

He has set up a warehouse 
in Oxford-street. 

I observed by your circular 
your having dissolved part- 
nership with Mr. N. 

He carries on business with 
much success. 



140 



3d) bin mtt feinem &aufe 5U= 

frieben/ inbem tie ^Dreife fetts 

bem gejltcgen ftnb. 
£Me Dualitat con rofyen Sucfern 

jltmrat nid)t mtt ber ^Probe 

uberein. 
SKofye unb gttK'tbrd^tige (Seibe fyaU 

tm fid) fortbauernb tm preife. 
3fyre S^imeffe Don £ — ijl ge= 

l)6rt0 neretjrt it?orben. 
£)er SKud^oll a'uf 3ucfer/ wetter 

au§ ben SSeretntgten ^taaten 

nrieber augQefuijrt rcorben/ ijl 

unbebeutenb. 
SSeXie&cn <Ste tie Sabung lieber 

uber ; al§ unter bem SKkrtfje 

§u oerftdjern. 
@r fytelt mid) ^>in wegen bee 

3a I) lung. 
(Sr. tfyut e§/ urn geit §u gettrin^ 

nen. 
3t)fe SSollmadjt ifl nid)t in ge^ 

Rodger gorm auSgefeuttgt. 
3d) ^)abc ifym meine gange S8olU 

mad)t gegeben. 
©ie ftnb tie foltbejlen Seute in 

biefem Sanbe. 
3^e gorberung an mid) ijl nid)t 

metyr at§ 2000 ££)lv. 
£er #errn 9t. ijl burd) mid) er^ 

macfytigt, SBriefe unb fSSec^fet 

in meinem Xiamen gu jeicfynen. 



I am satisfied with his pur- 
chase, the prices having 
since advanced. 

The quality of the raw sugar 
does not agree with the 
samples. 

Raw and thrown silk con- 
tinue pretty steady in price. 

Your remittance of £ — has 
been honoured. 

The drawback on sugars, re- 
exported from the United 
States is trilling. 

Please to insure the cargo 
rather above than below 
value. 

He kept me off and on for 
the payment. 

He does it to gain time. 

Your power of attorney is not 

drawn up in due form. 
I have invested him with my 

full power. 
Their character is one of the 

fairest in this country. 
Your claim upon me is no 

more than 2000 dollars. 
Mr. N. is empowered by me 

to sign letters and bills in 

my name. 



J. Wertlieimer & Co., Printers, Fmsburj Circus.